Art Of Cookery Made Plain And Easy | Hannah Glasse | Modern (19th C) | Audiobook full unabridged | English | 10/12
Content of the video and Sections beginning time (clickable) – Chapters of the audiobook: please see First comments under this video.
Although this recording has been made using the 1784 version, the original book of The Art of Cookery, Made Plain and Easy was first published by subscription in 1747 by Hannah Glasse and was a compilation of the recipes typical for British meals produced in the kitchens of the more affluent classes in the 1700s.
It will become obvious to the reader (and listener) of this (audio)book that Hannah Glasse was a very experienced and consummate cook totally focussed on preparing and presenting a wholesome and varied range of fare for the family and guests of the household in the most economic and efficient manner possible.
In the book’s foreword – ‘To The Reader’ – Hannah Glasse states that she has ‘not wrote in the high polite style’ but rather it is her intent to ‘instruct the lower sort’ in their own way. By writing in her practical no-nonsense manner she is able to instil confidence in anyone who follows her recipes and advice to be able to produce an almost infinite variety of meals using whatever ingredients are available at the time.
If you are looking for recipes for ‘Fancy Food’ then this book is not for you. But if you are interested in discovering how some of the best, wholesome, ‘stick to your ribs’ meals were created, then join me in the kitchen to find out what some of the finest 18th century British cuisine has to offer.
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section 34 of the art of cookery made plain and easy by Hannah glasse this LibriVox recording is in the public domain chapter 17 of made wines brewing French bread muffins etc to make raisin wine take two hundred of raisins stalks and all and put them into a large Hawks head fill it with water let them steep a fortnight stirring them every day then pour off all the liquor and press the raisins puts both liqueurs together in a nice clean vessel that will just hold it for it must be full let it stand till it has done hissing or making the least noise then stop it close and let it stand six months PEG it and if you find it quite clear wreck it off in another vessel stop it close and let it stand three months longer then bottle it and when you use it wreck it off into a decanter to make elder wine pick the elderberries when full ripe put them into a Stone jar and set them in the oven or a kettle of boiling water till the jar is hot through then take them out and strain them through a coarse cloth wringing the berries and put the juice into a clean kettle to every quart of juice put a pound of fine Lisbon sugar let it boil and skim it well when it is clear and fine pour it into a jar when cold cover it close and keep it till you make raisin wine then when you turn up your wine to every gallon of wine put half a pint of the elder syrup to make orange wine take 12 pounds of the best powder sugar with the whites of eight or ten eggs well beaten into six gallons of spring water and boil three quarters of an hour when cold put into it six spoonfuls of yeast and the juice of 12 lemons which being paired must stand with two pounds of white sugar in a tankard and in the morning skim off the top and then put it into the water then add the juice and rinds of 50 oranges but not the white parts of the rinds and so let it work altogether two days and two nights then add two quarts of Rhenish or white wine and put it into your vessel to make orange wine with raisins take 30 pounds of new Malaga raisins picked clean chop them small take 20 large Seville oranges ten of them you must pair as thin as for preserving boil about 8 gallons of soft water till 1/3 be consumed let it cool a little then put 5 gallons of it hot upon your raisins and orange peel stir it well together cover it up and when it is cold let it stand 5 days stirring it once or twice a day then pass it through a hair sieve and with a spoon press it as dry as you can put it in a run let fit for it and put to it the rind of the other 10 oranges cut as thin as the first then make a syrup of the juice of 20 oranges with a pound of white sugar it must be made the day before you tunne TARP stir it well together and stop it close let it stand 2 months to clear then bottle it up it will keep 3 years and is better for keeping to make elderflower wine very like front eniac take 6 gallons of spring water 12 pounds of white sugar 6 pounds of raisins of the Sun chopped oil these together one hour then take the flowers of alder when they are falling and rub them off to the quantity of half a peck when the liquor is cold put them in the next day put in the juice of three lemons and four spoonfuls of good i'll yeast let it stand covered up two days then strain it off and put it in a vessel fit for it to every gallon of wine put a quart of Rhenish and put your bung lightly on a fortnight then stop it down close let it stand six months and if you find it is fine bottle it off to make gooseberry wine gather your gooseberries in dry weather when they are half ripe pick them and brews a peck in a tub with a wooden mallet then take a horse hair cloth and press them as much as possible without breaking the seeds when you have pressed out all the Jews to every gallon of gooseberries put three pounds of fine dry powder sugar stir it all together till the sugar is dissolved then put it in a vessel or cask which must be quite full if ten or twelve gallons let it stand a fortnight's if a 20 gallon cask five weeks set it in a cool place then draw it off from the Lee's clear the vessel of the Lee's and pour in the clear liquor again if it be a ten gallon cask let it stand three months if a 20 gallon four months then bottle it off to make currant wine gather your currants on a fine dry day when the fruit is full ripe strip them put them in a large pan and brews them with a wooden pestle let them stand in a pan or tub 24 hours to ferment then run it through a hair sieve and do not let your hand touch the liquor to every gallon of this liquor put two pounds and a half of white sugar stir it well together put it into your vessel to every six gallons put in a quart of brandy and let it stand six weeks if it is fine bottle it if it is not throw it off as clear as you can into another vessel or large bottles and in a fortnight bottle it in small bottles to make cherry wine pull your cherries when full ripe off the stalks and press them through a hair sieve to every gallon of liquor put two pounds of lump sugar beat fine stir it together and put it into a vessel it must be full when it is done working and making any noise stop it closed for three months and bottle it off to make birch wine the season for procuring the liquor from the birch trees is in the beginning of March while the sap is rising and before the leaves shoot out for when the SAP has come forward and the leaves appear the juice by being long digested in the bark grows thick and coloured which before was thin and clear the method of procuring the juice is by boring holes in the body of the tree and putting in so Firth's which are commonly made of the branches of alder the pith being taken out you may without hurting the tree if large tappets in several places four or five at a time and by that means save from a good many trees several gallons every day if you have not enough in one day the bottles in which it drops must be caught close and Rose end or waxed however make use of it as soon as you can take the SAP and boil it as long as any scum rises skimming it all the time to every gallon of liquor put four pounds of good sugar the thin peel of a lemon boil it after Ward's half an hour very well pour it into a clean tub and when it is almost cold set it to work with the yeast spread upon a toast let it stand five or six days stirring it often then take such a cask as will hold the liquor far a large match dipped in brimstone and throw it into the cask stop it close till the match is extinguished Tunya wine lay the bung on light till you find it as done working stop it close and keep it three months then bottle it off to make quince wine gather the quinces when dry and full ripe take 20 large quinces wipe them clean with a coarse cloth and grate them with a large grate or rasp as near the core as you can but none of the core boiler gallon of spring water throw in your quinces let it boil softly about a quarter of an hour then strain them well into an earth and pan on two pounds of double refined sugar pare the peel of two large lemons throw in and squeeze the juice through a sieve stir it about till it is very cool then toast a little bit of bread very thin and brown rub a little yeast on it let it stand close covered 24 hours then take out the toast and lemon put it up in a KAG keep it three months and then bottle it if you make a 20 gallon cask let it stand 6 months before you bottle it when you strain your quinces you are to wring them hard in a coarse cloth to make cowslip or Clary wine take 6 gallons of water 12 pounds of sugar the juice of 6 lemons the whites of 4 eggs beat very well put all together in a kettle let it boil half an hour skim it very well take a peck of cowslips if dry ones half a Pech put them into a table with the thin paling of six lemons then pour on the boiling liquor and stir them about when almost cold put it in a thin toast by dry and rubbed with yeast let it stand two or three days to work if you put in before you tun it six ounces of syrup of Citroen or lemons with a quarter brenna Schwein it will be a great addition the third day strain it off and squeeze the cows lips through a coarse cloth then strain it through a flannel bag and ton its up lay the bond loose for two or three days to see if it works and if it does not bug it down tight let it stand three months then bottle it to make turnip wine take a good many turnips pear slice and put them in a cider press and press out all the juice very well to every gallon of Jews have three pounds of lump sugar have a vessel ready just big enough to hold the Jews put your sugar into a vessel and also to every gallon of juice half a pint of brandy pour in the juice and lay something over the bong for a week to see if it works if it does you must not bung it down till it has done working then stop it closed for three months and draw it off in another vessel when it is fine bottle it off to make raspberry wine take some fine raspberries bruised them with the back of a spoon then strain them through a flannel bag into a Stone jar to each quart of juice put a pound of double refined sugar stir it well together and cover it close let it stand three days then pour it off clear to a quart of Jews for two quarts of white wine bottle it off it will be fit to drink in a week brendi made thus is a very fine DRAM and a much better way than steeping the raspberry's rules for brewing care must be taken in the first place to have the malt clean and after it is ground it ought to stand four or five days for strong october five quarters of molt two three hopes heads and twenty four pounds of hopes this will after wards make two hogsheads of good keeping small bear allowing five pounds of hops to it for middling bear 1/4 of molt makes a hogshead a vial and one of small bear or it will make three hogsheads of good small bear allowing eight pounds of hops this will keep all the year or it will make twenty gallons of strong ale and two hogsheads of small bear that will keep all the year if you intend your oil to keep a great while allow a pound of hops to every bushel if to keep six months five pounds to a Hulk's head if for present drinking three pounds to a hogshead and the softest and clearest water you can get observe the day before to have all your vessels very clean and never use your tubs for any other use except to make wines literal casks be very clean the day before with boiling water and if your bong is big enough scrub them well with a little birch broom or brush but if they be very bad take out the heads and let them be scrubbed clean with a hand brush sand and Fuller's earth put on the head again and scold them well throw into the barrel a piece of unslaked lime and stop the bung close the first copper of water when it boils pour into your mash tub and let it be cool enough to see your face in then put in your molds and let it be well mashed have a copper of water boiling in the meantime and when your molt is well mashed Phil you're mashing tub stir it well again and cover it over with the sacks let it stand three hours set a broad shallow tub under the cork let it run very softly and if it is thick throw it up again till it runs fine then throw a handful of hops in the under tub let the mash run into it and fill your tubs till all is run off have water boiling in the copper and lye is much more on as you have occasion for allowing 1/3 for boiling and waste let that stand an hour boiling more water to fill the mash tub for small bear let the fire down a little and put it into tubs enough to fill your mash let the second mash we run off and fill your copper with the first wort put in part of your hops and make it boil quick about an hour is long enough when it is half boiled throw in a handful of salt have a clean white wand and dip it into the copper and if the wort feels clammy it is boiled enough then slacken your fire and take off your wort have ready a large tub put two sticks across and set your straining basket over the tub on the sticks and strain your wort through it put your other wort on to boil with the rest of the hops let your mash be covered again with water and thin your wort that is cooled in as many things as you can for the thinner it lies and the quicker it calls the better when quite cool put it into the tunning tub throw a handful of salt into every boil when the mash has stood an hour draw it off then fill your mash with cold water take off the wort in the copper and order it as before when cool add to it the first in the tub so soon as you empty one copper fill the other so boiled your small beer well let the last mash run off and when both are boiled with fresh hops order them as the two first boiling when cool empty the mash tub and put the small bear to work there when cool enough work it set a wooden bowl full of yeast in the beer and it will work over with a little of the beer in the boil stir your tun up every 12 hours let it stand two days then turn it taking off the yeast fill your vessels full and save some to fill your barrels let it stand two litters done working then lay on your bung lightly for a fortnight after that stop it as close as you can mind you have a vent peg at the top of the vessel in warm weather open it and if you'll drink hisses as it often will loose until it has done then stop it closed again if you can boil your ale in one boiling it is best if your copper will allow of it if not boil it as convenience e serves when you come to draw your beer and find it is not fine draw off a gallon and set it on the fire with two ounces of izing glass cut small and beat dissolve it in the beer over the fire when it is all melted let it stand till it is cold and pour it in at the bung which must lay loose on til it has done fermenting then stop it closed for a month take great care your casks are not musty or have any ill taste if they have it is a hard thing to sweeten them you are to wash your casks with cold water before you scold them and they should lie a day or two soaking and clean them well then scold them the best thing for rope mix two handfuls have been flour and one handful of salt throw this into a killed akin of beer do not stop it close till it has done fermenting then let it stand a month and draw it off but sometimes nothing will do with it when a barrel of beer has turned sour to a killed a kin of beer throw in at the bong a quart of oatmeal lay the bun on loose two or three days then stop it down close and let it stand a month some throw in a piece of chalk as big as a Turkey's egg and when it is done working stop it closed for a month then tap it baking to make white bread after the London way take a bushel of the finest flour well-dressed put it in the kneading trough at one end take a gallon of water which we call liquor and some yeast stir it into the liquor till it looks of a good brown color and begins to curdle strain and mix it with your flour till it is about the thickness of a seed cake then cover it with the lid of the trough and let it stand three hours and as soon as you say it begin to fall take a gallon more of liquor weigh three quarters of a pound of salt and with your hand mix it well with the water strain it and with this liquor make your dough of a moderate thickness fit to make up into loaves then cover it again with the lid and let it stand three hours more in the meantime put the wood into the oven and heat it it will take two hours heating when your sponge has stirred its proper time clear the oven and begin to make your bread set it in the oven and close it up and three hours will bake it when once it is in you must not open the oven until the bread is baked and observe in summer that your water be milk warm and in winter as hot as you can bear your finger in its note as to the quantity of liquor your dough will take experience will teach you in two or three times making for all flour does not want the same quantity of liquor and if you make any quantity it will raise up the lid and run over to make french bread take three quarts of water and one of milk in winter scolding hearts in summer a little more than milk warm season it well with salt then take a point and a half of good oil yeast not bitter lay it in a gallon of water the night before pour it off the water stir in your yeast into the milk and water then with your hand break in a little more than a quarter of a pound of butter work it well till it is dissolved then beat up two eggs and a basin and stir them in have about a peck and a half of flour mix eggs with your liquor in winter make your dough pretty stiff in summer more slack so that you may use a little more or less of flour according to the stiffness of your dough mix it well but the less you work the better make it into rolls and have a very quick oven when they have lain about a quarter of an hour turn them on the other side let them lie about 1/4 longer take them out and chip all your French bread with a knife which is better than rasping it and makes it look spongy and of a fine yellow whereas the rasping takes off all that fine colour and makes it look too smooth you must stir your liquor into the flour as you do for pie crust after your dough is made cover it with a cloth and let it lie to rise while the oven is heating to make muffins and oatcakes to a bushel of hartford shear white flour took a point and a half of good aisle yeast from pale malts if you can get it because it is the whitest let the yeast lie in water all night the next day pour off the water clear make two gallons of water just milk warm not to scold your yeast and two ounces of salt mix your water yeast and salt well together for about a quarter of an hour then strain it and mix up your dough as light as possible and let it lie in your trough an hour to rise then with your hand roll it and pull it into little pieces about as big as a large walnut roll them with your hand like a ball lay them on your table and as fast as you do them lay a piece of flannel over them and be sure to keep your dough covered with flannel when you have rolled out all your dough begin to bake the first and by that time they will be spread out in the right form lay them on your iron as one side begins to change color turn the other take great care they do not burn or be too much discolored but that you will be a judge of in two or three makings take care the middle of the iron is not too hot as it will be but then you may put a brick battle too in the middle of the fire to slacken the heat the thing you bake on must be made thus build a place as if it was going to set a copper and in the stead of a copper a piece of iron all over the top fixed in form just the same as the bottom of an iron pot and make your fire underneath with coal as in a copper observe muffins are made the same way only this when you pull them to pieces roll them in a good deal of flour and with a rolling pin roll them thin cover them with a piece of flannel and they will rise to a proper thickness and if you find them too big or too little you must roll dough accordingly these must not be the least discolored when you eat them toast them crisp on both sides then with your hand pulled them open and they will be like a honeycomb lay in as much butter as you intend to use then clap them together again and set it by the fire when you think the butter is melted turn them that both sides may be buttered alike but do not touch them with a knife either to spread or cut them open if you do they will be as heavy as lead only when they are buttered and done you may cut them across with a knife note some flour will soak up a quart or three points more water than other flour then you must add more water or shaken more flour in making up for the dough must be as light as possible a receipt for making bread without bomb by the help of eleven take a lump of dough about two pounds of your last making which has been raised by bomb keep it by you in a wooden vessel and cover it well with flour there sizzle leaven then the night before you intend to buy put the said Levin to a peck of flour and work them well together with warm water let it lie in a dry wooden vessel well covered with the linen cloth and a blanket and keep it in a warm place this dough kept warm will rise again next morning and will be sufficient to mix with two or three bushels of flour being worked up with warm water and a little salt when it is well worked up and thoroughly mixed with all the flour let it be well covered with the linen and blankets until you find it rise then knead it well and work it up into bricks or low making the loaves broad and not so thick and high as is frequently done by which means the bread will be better baked then bake your bread always keep by you two or more pounds of the dough of your last baking well covered with flour to make leaven to serve from one baking day to another the more leaven is put to the flour the lighter and spongy err the bread will be the fresher the leaven the bread will be the less sour from the dublin society a method to preserve a large stock of yeast which will keep and be of use for several months either to make bread or cakes when you have yeast in plenty take a quantity of it stir and work it well with a whisk until it becomes liquid and thin then get a large wooden platter cooler or tub clean and dry and with a soft brush lie a thin layer of the yeast on the tub and turn the mouth downwards that no dust may fall upon its butt so the air may get under to dry it when that coat is very dry then lay on another till you have a sufficient quantity even two or three inches thick to serve for several months always taking care the yeast in the tub be very dry before you lay more on when you have occasion to use this yeast cut a piece off and lay it in warm water stir it together and it will be fitful use if it is for brewing take a large handful of birch tie together and dip it into the yeast and hang it up to dry take great care no dust comes to it and so you may do as many as you please when your beer is fit to set to work throw in one of these and it will make it work as well as if you had fresh yeast you must whip it about in the wort and there let it lie when the VATS works well shake out the broom and draw it again and it will do for the next brewing notes in the building of your oven for baking observe that you make it round low-roofed and a little mouth then it will take less fire and keep in the heat better than a long oven and high-roofed and will bake the bread better end of section 34 section 35 of the art of cookery made plain and easy by Hannah glass this LibriVox recording is in the public domain chapter 18 jarring cherries and preserves etc to jar cherries lady North's why take 12 pounds of cherries Stone them put them in your preserving pan with three pounds of double refined sugar and a quart of water then set them on the fire till they are scolding hot take them off a little while and set them on the far again boil them till they are tender then sprinkle them with half a pound of double refined sugar pounded and skim them clean put them all together in a china bowl let them stand in the syrup three days drain them through a sieve and take them out one by one with the holes downwards on a wicker sieve then set them in a stove to dry and as they dry turn them upon clean sibs when they are dry enough put a clean white sheet of paper in a preserving pan then put all the cherries in with another clean white sheet of paper on the top of them cover them close with a cloth and set them over a cool fire till they sweat take them off the fire then let them stand till they are cold and put them in boxes or jars to keep to dry cherries to four pounds of cherries put one pound of sugar and just put as much water to the sugar as we'll wet it when it is melted make it boil Stone your cherries put them in and make them boil skim them two or three times take them off and let them stand in the syrup 2 or 3 days then boil your syrup and put to them again but do not boil your cherries any more let them stand three or four days longer then take them out lay them in sibs to dry and lay them in the Sun or in a slow oven to dry when dry lay them in rows in papers and sew a row of cherries and a row of white paper in boxes to preserve cherries with the leaves and stalk screen first dip the stalks and leaves in the best vinegar boiling hot stick the sprig upright and a sieve till they are dry in the meantime boil some double refined sugar to syrup and dip the cherries stalks and leaves in the syrup and just let them scold lay them on a sieve and boil the sugar to a candy heids then dip the cherries stalks leaves and all then stick the branches in sieves and dry them as you do other sweet meats they look very pretty at candle light in a dessert to make orange marmalade take the clearest Seville oranges and cut them in two take out all the pulp and juice into a pan and pick all the skins and seeds out boil the rinds in hard water till they are very tender and changed the water three times while they are boiling and then pound them in a mortar and put in the juice and pulp put them in a preserving pan with double their white of loaf sugar set it over a slow fire boil it gently 40 minutes put it into ports cover its with brandy paper and tie it down close to make white marmalade pair and call the quinces as fast as you can then take to a pound of quinces being cut in pieces less than half quarters 3/4 of a pound of double refined sugar beets small then throw half the sugar on the raw quinces set it on a slow fire till the sugar is melted and the quinces tender then put in the rest of the sugar and boil it up as fast as you can when it is almost enough put in some jelly and boil at a pace then put it up and when it is quite cold cover it with white paper to make red marmalade take full right quinces hair and cut them in quarters and call them put them in a saucepan cover them with the parings fill the saucepan nearly full of spring water cover it close and stew them gently till they are quite soft and a deep pink color then pick out the quince from the pairings and beat them to a pulp in a mortar take their white in low sugar put in as much of the water they were boiled in as will dissolve it and boil and skim it well put in your quinces and boiled them gently 3/4 of an hour keep stirring them all the time or it will stick to the pan and burn put it into flat pots and when cold tie it down close to preserve oranges whole take the best Bermudas or Seville oranges you can get and pair them with a penknife very thin and lie your oranges in water three or four days shifting them everyday then put them in a kettle with fair water and put a board on them to keep them down in the water and have a skillet on the fire with water that may be ready to supply the kettle with boiling water as it wastes it must be filled up three or four times while the oranges are doing four they will take up seven or eight hours boiling they must be boiled till a white straw will run through them then take them out and scoop the seeds out of them very carefully by making a little hole in the top and weigh them to every pound of oranges put a pound and 3/4 of double refined sugar beat well and sifted through a clean lawn sieve fill your oranges with sugar and strew some on them let them lie a little while and make your jelly thus take two dozen of Pippins or John apples and slice them into water and when they are boiled tender strain the liqueur from the pulp and to every pound of oranges you must have a pint and a half of this liqueur and put to it three-quarters of the sugar you left in filling the oranges set it on the fire and let it boil skim it well and put it in a clean earth and pan till it is cold then put it in your skillet put it in your oranges with a small Botkin drop your oranges as they are boiling to let the syrup into them strew on the rest of your sugar whilst they are boiling and when they look clear take them up and put them into your glasses puts one in a glass just fit for them and boil the syrup till it is almost a jelly then fill up your glasses when they are cold paper them up and keep them in a dry place or thus cut a hole after the stork end of your orange as big as a sixpence scoop out all the pulp very clean tie them singly in muslin and lay them two days in spring water change the water twice a day and boil them in the muslin till tender be careful we keep them covered with water why the oranges before you scoop them so every pound add two pounds of double refined sugar and a pint of water boil the sugar and water with the orange juice to a syrup skim it well let it stand till it is cold take the oranges out of the muslin and put them in and boil them till they are quite clear and put them by till cold then pair and coarse and green Pippins and boil them in water till it is very strong of the Pippin do not stir them put them down gently with the back of a spoon and strain the liqueur through a jelly bag till it is clear put to every point of liqueur a pound of double refined sugar and the juice of a lemon strained as clear as you can boil it to a strong jelly drain the oranges out of your syrup and put them in glass or white stone jars of the size of the orange and pour the jelly on them cover them with brandy papers and tie them over with a bladder you may do lemons in the same manner quinces whole take your quinces and pair them cut them in quarters or leave them whole which you please put them into a saucepan and cover them with hard water lay your pairings over them to keep them under water cover your saucepan close that no steam can come out set them over a slow fire till they are soft and a fine pink color then let them stand till cold make a syrup of double refined sugar with as much water as will wet it boil and skim it puts in your quinces let them boil ten minutes take them off and let them stand three hours then boil them till the syrup is thick and the quinces clear then put them in deep jars and when cold put brandy paper over them and tie them down close to make conserv of red roses or any other flowers take rose buds or any other flowers and pick them cut off the white part from the red and put the red flowers and sift them through a sieve to take out the seeds then weigh them and to every pound of flowers take two pounds and a half of loaf sugar beat the flowers pretty fine in a stone mortar then by degrees put the sugar to them and beat it very well till it is well incorporated together then put it into gala pots tie it over with paper over that a leather and it will keep seven years to make conserve of hips gather hips before they grow soft cut off the heads and stalks slit them in halves take out all the seeds and white that is in them very clean then put them into an earth and pan and stir them every day or they will grow mouldy let them stand till they are soft enough to rub them through a coarse hair sieve as the pole comes take it off the sieve they are a dry berry and will require pains to rub them through then add its weight in sugar mix them well together without boiling and keep it in deep galley pots for use to make syrup of roses infuse three pounds of damask rose leaves in a gallon of warm water in a well glazed earthen pot with a narrow mouth for eight hours which stops so close that none of the virtue may exhale when they have infused so long heat the water again squeeze them out and put in three pounds more of rose leaves to infuse for eight hours more then press them out very hard then to every quart of this infusion and four pounds of fine sugar and boil it to a syrup to make syrup of Citroen pear and slice your citrons thin lay them in a basin with layers of fine sugar the next day pour off the liquor into a glass skim it and clarify it over a gentle fire to make syrup of clove Gilly flowers clip your ghillie flowers sprinkle them with fair water put them into an earthen pot stop it up very close set it in a kettle of water and let it boil for two hours then strain out the juice put a pound and a half of sugar to a point of juice put it into a skillet set it on the fire keep it stirring till the sugar is all melted do not let it boil then set it by to cool and put it into bottles to make syrup of peach blossoms infuse peach blossoms in hot water as much as will handsomely cover them let them stand in Bell mio or in sand for 24 hours covered close then strain out the flowers from the liquor and put in fresh flowers let them stand to infuse as before then strain them out and to the liquor put fresh peach blossoms the third time and if you please a fourth time then to every pound of your infusion add two pounds of double refined sugar and setting us in sand or Bonio make a syrup which keep for use to make syrup of quinces great quinces pass their pulp through a cloth to extract the juice set their juices in the Sun to settle or before the fire and by that means clarify oats for every four ounces of this juice take a pound of sugar boil brown if the pudding in the juice of the quinces should check the boiling of the sugar too much give the syrup some boiling till it becomes pearled then take it off the fire and when cold put it into the bottles to preserve apricots take your apricots stone and pair them thin and take their white in double refined sugar baton and sifted put your apricots in a silver cup or tankard cover them over with sugar and let them stand so all night the next day put them in a preserving pan set them on a gentle fire and let them simmer a little while then let them boil till tender and clear taking them off sometimes to turn and skim keep them under the liquor as they are doing and with a small clean bodkin or great needle job them that the syrup may penetrate into them when they are enough take them up and put them in glasses boil and skim your syrup and when it is cold put it on your apricots put brandy paper over and tie them close to preserve damsons whole you must take some damsons and cut them in pieces put them in a skillet over the fire with as much water as will cover them when they are boiled and the liquor pretty strong strain it out add for every pound of the damsons white clean a pound of single refined sugar put the third part of your sugar into the liquor set it over the fire and when it simmers put in the damsons let them have one good boil and take them off for half an hour covered up close then set them on again and let them simmer over the fire after turning them then take them out and put them in a basin strew all the sugar that was left on them and pour the hot liquor over them cover them up and let them stand till next day then boil them up again till they are enough take them up and put them in pots all the liquor till it jellies and pour it on them when it is almost cold so paper them up to candy any sort of flowers take the best treble refined sugar break it into lumps and dip it pace by pace into water put them into a vessel of silver and melt them over the fire when it just boils strain it and set it on the fire again then let it boil till it draws in hairs which you may perceive by holding up your spoon then put in the flowers and set them in cups or glasses when it is of a hard candy break it in lumps and lay it as high as you please dry it in a stove or in the Sun and it will look like sugar candy to preserve gooseberries whole without stoning take the largest preserving gooseberries and pick off the black eye but not the stalk then set them over the fire in a pot of water to scold cover them very close but not boil or break and when they are tender take them up into cold water then take a pound and a half of double refined sugar to a pound of gooseberries and clarify the sugar with water a point to a pound of sugar and when your syrup is cold put the gooseberries single in your preserving pan put the syrup to them and set them on a gentle fire let them boil but not too fast lest they break and when they have boiled and you perceived that the sugar has entered them take them off cover them with white paper and set them by til the next day then take them out of the syrup and boil the syrup till it begins to be ropey skim it and put it to them again then set them on a gentle fire and let them simmer gently till you perceive the syrup will robe then take them off set them by till they are cold cover them with paper then boil some gooseberries in fair water and when the liqueur is strong enough strain it out let it stand to settle and to every point take a pound of double refined sugar then make a jelly of it put the gooseberries in glasses when they are cold cover them with the jelly the next day Peiper them wet and then half dry the paper that goes in the inside it closes down better and then white paper over the glass set it in your stove or a dry place to preserve white walnuts first pair your walnuts till the white appears and nothing else you must be very careful when the doing of them that they do not turn black and as fast as you do them throw them into salt and water and let them lie till your sugar is ready take three pounds of good live sugar put it into your preserving pan set it over a charcoal fire and put as much water as we'll just wet the sugar let it boil then have ready ten or a dozen whites of eggs strained and beat up to a froth cover your sugar with the froth as it boils and skim it then boil it and skim it till it is as clear as crystal then throw in your walnuts just give them a boil till they are tender then take them out and lay them in a dish to cool when cool put them in your preserving pan and when the sugar is as warm as milk pour it over them when quite cold paper them down thus clear your sugar for all preserves apricots peaches gooseberries currants etc to preserve walnuts green wipe them very clean and lay them in strong salt and water 24 hours then take them out and wipe them very clean have ready a skillet of water boiling throw them in let them boil a minute and take them out lay them on a coarse cloth and boil your sugar as above then just give your walnuts or scold in the sugar take them up and lay them to cool put them in your preserving pot and pour on your syrup as above to preserve the large green plums first dip the stalks and leaves in boiling vinegar when they are dry have your syrup ready and first give them a scold and very carefully with a pin take off the skin boil your sugar to a candy height and dip in your plums hang them by the stalk to dry and they will look finally transparent and by hanging that way to dry we'll have a clear drop at the top you must take great care to clear your sugar nicely to preserve peaches take the largest peaches you can get not overripe rub off the Lintz with a cloth and run them down the seam with a pin skin deep cover them with French brandy tie a bladder over them and let them stand a week make a strong syrup and boil and skim it well take the peaches out of the brandy and put them in and boil them till they look clear then take them out put them in glasses mix the syrup with the brandy and when cold pour it over your peaches tie them close down with a bladder and leather over it to make quints cakes you must let a point of the syrup of quinces with a quart or two of raspberries be boiled and clarified over a clear gentle fire taking care that it be well skimmed from time to time then add a pound and a half of sugar causes much more to be brought to a candy height and poured in hot let the whole be continually stirred about till it is almost cold then spread it on plates and cut it out into cakes end of section 35 section 4 six of the art of cookery made plain and easy by Hannah glasse this LibriVox recording is in the public domain chapter 19 to make anchovies vermicelli ketchup vinegar and to keep artichokes French beans etc to make anchovies to a peck of sprouts two pounds of common salt a quarter of a pound of bay salt four pounds of saltpeter two ounces of soap Rinella two pennyworth of cochineal pound all in a mortar put them into a stone pot a row of sprites a layer of your compound and so on to the top alternately press them hard down cover them close let them stand six months and they will be fit for use observe that your sprouts be very fresh and do not wash or wipe them but just take them as they come out of the water to pickle smells where you have plenty take a quarter of a peck of smells half an ounce of pepper half an ounce of nutmeg a quarter of an ounce of mace half an ounce of saltpeter a quarter of a pound of common salt beets all very fine wash and clean the smelts gut them then lay them in rows in a jar and between every layer of smells strew the seasoning with four or five bay leaves then boil red wine and pour over them enough to cover them cover them with a plate and when cold tie them down close they exceed anchovies to make vermicelli mix yolks of eggs and flour together in a pretty stiff paste so as you can work it up cleverly and roll it as thin as it is possible to roll the paste let it dry in the Sun when it is quite dry with a very sharp knife cut it as thin as possible and keep it in a dry place it will run up like little worms as vermicelli does though the best way is to run it through a coarse sieve whilst the paste is soft if you want some to be made in haste try it by the fire and cut it small it will dry by the fire in a quarter of an hour this far exceeds what comes from abroad being fresher to make ketchup take the large flaps of mushrooms gather dry and brews them put some at the bottom of an earth and pan strew some salt over then mushrooms then salt – you have done put in half an ounce of cloves and mace and the like of allspice let them stand six days stir them up every day then send them to the oven and bake them gently for four hours take them out and strain the liquor throw a cloth or fine sieve to every gallon of liquor at a quart of red wine if not salt enough add a little more a rice or two of ginger cut small boil it till one quart is wasted strain it into a pan and let it be cold pour it from the sent Ling's bottle it and cork it tight another way to make ketchup take the large flaps and salt them as above boil the liquor strain it through a thick flannel bag to a quart of that liquor put a quart of style beer a large stick of horseradish cut in little slips five or six bay leaves an onion stuck with 20 or 30 cloves a quarter of an ounce of mace a quarter of an ounce of nutmeg Spade a quarter of an ounce of black and white pepper a quarter of an ounce of allspice and four or five races of ginger cover it close and let it simmer very softly till about one third is wasted then strain it through a flannel bag when it is cold butter it's in point bottles caulk it close and it will keep a great while the other receipt you have in the chapter for the sea artichokes to keep or they year boil as many artichokes as you intend to keep pull them so as just that leaves will come out then pull off all the leaves and choke cut them from the strings lay them on a tin plate and put them in an oven where tarts are drawn let them stand till the oven is heated again take them out before the wood is put in and set them in again after the tarts are drawn so do till they are as dry as a board then put them in a paper bag and hang them in a dry place you should lay them in warm water three or four hours before you use them shifting the water off then let the last water be boiling hot they will be very tender and eat as fine as fresh ones you need not dry all your bottoms at once as the leaves are good to eat so boil a dozen at a time and save the bottoms for this use to keep French beans all the year take fine young beans gather them on a very fine day have a large stone jar ready clean and dry lie a layer of salt at the bottom and then a layer of beans then salt and then beans and so on till the jar is full cover them with salt tie a coarse cloth over them and a board on that and then a white to keep it close from all air set them in a dry cellar and when you use them cover them close a guy in wash them you took out very clean and let them lie in soft water 24 hours shifting the water often when you boil them do not put any salt in the water the best way of dressing them is boil them with just the white heart of a small cabbage then train them chop the cabbage and put both into a saucepan with a piece of butter as big as an egg rolled in flour shake a little pepper put in a quarter of a point of good gravy let them stew 10 minutes and then dish them up for a side dish you may do more or less just as you please to keep green peas till Christmas take fine young peas shell them throw them into boiling water with some salt in and let them boil five or six minutes throw them into a colander to dry in then layer cloth four or five times double on a table and spread them on dry them very well and have your bottles ready fill them and cover them with mutton Ferhat tried when it is a little cool fill the next almost to the top caught them tie a bladder and a lath over them and set them in a cool dry place when you use them boil your water put in a little salt some sugar and a piece of butter when they are boiled enough throw them into a sieve to drain then put them into a sauce burn with a good piece of butter keep shaking it round all the time till the butter is melted then turn them into a dish and send them to table another way to preserve green peas gather your peas on a very dry day when they are neither old nor too young show them and have ready some quart bottles with little mouths being well dried filled the bottles and cook them well have ready a Pipkin of rosin melted into which dip the necks of the bottles and set them in a very dry place that is cool to keep greengas breeze till Christmas pick your large green gooseberries on a dry day have ready your bottles clean and dry fill the bottles and cook them set them in a kettle of water up to the neck let the water boil very softly till you find the gooseberries are coddled take them out and put in the rest of the bottles till all are done then have ready some rosin melted in a Pipkin dip the necks of the bottles in and that will keep all air from coming at the cork keep them in a cold dry place where no damp is and they will bake as red as a cherry you may keep them without scolding but then the skins will not be so tender nor baked so fine to keep red gooseberries pick them when full ripe to each quart of gooseberries put a quarter of a pound of Lisbon sugar and to each quarter of a pound of sugar put a quarter of a pint of water let it boil then put in your gooseberries and let them boil softly two or three minutes then pour them into little stone jars when cold cover them up and keep them for use they make fine pies with little trouble you may press them through a colander to a quart of pulp put half a pound of fine Lisbon sugar keep stirring over the fire till both be well mixed and boiled and pour it into a Stone jar when cold cover it with white paper and it makes very pretty tarts or puffs to keep walnuts all the year take a large jar a layer of sea sand at the bottom then a layer of walnuts then sand than the nuts and so on to the jar is full and be sure they do not touch each other in any of the layers when you would use them lay them in warm water for an hour shift the water as it cools then rub them dry and they will pay all well and eat sweet lemons will keep thus covered better than any other way another way to keep lemons take the fine large fruit that are quite sound and good and take a fine pack thread about a quarter of a yard long run it through the hard nib at the end of the lemon then tie the string together and hang it on a little hook in an airy dry place so do many as you please but be sure they do not touch one another nor anything else but hang as high as you can thus you may keep pears etc only tying the string to the stalk to keep white Bullis hair plums or damsons etc for tarts or pies gather them when full-grown and just as they begin to turn pick all the largest out save about two-thirds of the fruit the other third put as much water to as you think will cover the rest let them boil and skim them when the fruit is boiled very soft then strain it through a coarse hair sieve and to every quart of this liqueur put a pound and a half of sugar boil EDS and skim it very well then throw in your fruit just give them a scold take them off the fire and when cold put them into bottles with wide mouths pour your syrup over them lay a piece of white paper over them and cover them with oil be sure to take the oil well off when you use them and do not put them in larger bottles than you think you shall make use of at a time because all these sorts of fruits spoil with the air to make vinegar to every gallon of water put a pound of course Lisbon sugar let it boil and keep skimming it as long as the scum rises then pour it into tubs and when it is as cold as beer to work toast a good toast and rub it over with yeast let it work 24 hours then have ready a vessel iron hooped and well painted fixed in a place where the Sun is full power and fix it so as not to have any occasion to move it when you draw it off then fill your vessels lay a tile on the bong to keep the dust out make it in March and it will be fit to use in June or July draw it off into little sewing bottles the latter end of June or beginning of July let it stand till you want to use it and it will never foul anymore but when you go to draw it off and you find it is not sour enough let it stand a month longer before you draw it off for pickles to go abroad use this vinegar alone but in England you will be obliged when you pickle to put 1/2 cold spring water to it and then it will be full sour with this vinegar you need not boil unless you please for almost any sort of pickles it will keep them quite good it will keep walnuts very fine without boiling even to go to the Indies but then do not put water to it for green pickles you may pour it scolding hot on two or three times all other sort of pickles you need not boil its mushrooms only wash them clean dry them put them into little bottles with a nutmeg just scolded in vinegar and slice whilst it is hot very thin and a few blades of maize then fill up the bottle with a cold vinegar and spring water pour the mutton fat ride over it and tie a bladder and leather over the top these mushrooms will not be so white but has finally tasted as if they were just gathered and a spoonful of this pickle will give source a very fine flavor white walnuts suckers and onions and all white pickles do in the same manner after they are ready for the pickle to fry smells let your smells be fresh quart white them very dry with a cloth beat up yolks of eggs and rub over them strew crumb of bread on hit some clear dripping boiling in a frying pan and fry them quick of a fine gold color put them on a plate to dry in and then lay them in your dish garnish with fried parsley with plain butter in a cup to dress White's bite take your white bait fresh quart and put them in a cloth with a handful of flour and shake them about who they are separated and quite dry have some Hulk's lard boiling quick fry them two minutes drain them and dish up with plain butter and soy to roast a pound of butter lay it in salt and water 2 or 3 hours then spit it and rub it all over with crumbs of bread with a little grated nutmeg lay it to the fire and as it roasts baste it with the yolks of two eggs and then with crumbs of bread all the time it is a roasting but have ready a point of oysters stewed in their own liquor and lay in the dish under the butter when the bread has soaked up all the butter brown the outside and lay it on your oysters your fire must be very slow end of section 36 section 37 of the art of cookery might plain and easy by Hannah glasse this LibriVox recording is in the public domain chapter 20 of distilling to distill walnut' water took a peck of fine green walnuts bruised them well in a large mortar put them in a pan with a handful of borm bruised put two quarts of good French brandy to them cover them close and let them lie three days the next day distill them in a cold still from this quantity draw three quarts which you may do in a day how to use this ordinary still you must lay the plate then wood ashes thick at the bottom then the iron pan which you are to fill with your walnuts and liquor then put on the head of the still make a pretty brisk fire to the still begins to drop then slacken it so is just a heaven of to keep the still at work mind all the time to keep a wet cloth all over the head of the still all the time it is at work and always observe not to let the still work longer then the liqueur is good and take great care you do not burn the still and thus you may distill what you please if you draw the still too far it will burn and give your liqueur a bad taste to make treacle water take the juice of green walnuts four pounds of Rue car duis marigold and born of each three pounds roots of butterbur half a pound roots of burdock one pound Angelica and master warts of each half a pound leaves of score diem six handfuls finis treacle and mithra date of each half a pound old canary wine two pounds white wine vinegar six pounds juice of lemon six pounds and distilled this in an Alembic to make black cherry water take six pounds of black cherries and brews them small then put to them the tops of Rose Marie sweet marjoram spearmint Angelica form marigold flowers of each a handful dried violets one ounce anise seeds and sweet fennel seeds of each half an ounce bruised cut the herb small mix all together and to still the morph in a cold still to make hysterical water take Bettany roots of lovage seeds of wild parsnips of each 2 ounces roots of single peony for answers of mistletoe of the oak three answers myrrh a quarter of an ounce castor half an ounce bait all these together and add to them a quarter of a pound of dried millipedes pour on these three quarts of mugwort water and two quarts of brandy let them stand in a closed vessel eight days then distiller it in a cold still paste it up you may draw off nine points of water and sweeten it to your taste mix all together and bottle it up to distill red rose buds Whetzel roses in fair water four gallons of roses will take near two gallons of water then steal them in a cold still take the same stilled water and put into it as many fresh roses as it were wet then steal them again mint form parsley and pennyroyal water distilled the same way to make plague water from the following types of ingredients being routes flowers and seeds routes used in plague water angelica dragon may wart mint rue car duis or Riggin ii winter savory broad thyme rosemary Pimpernel sage Fuma tree coltsfoot scabby Asst borage saxifrage Bettany liverworts Djem ander flowers used in plague water wormwood sucker e hisab agrimony fennel cowslips poppies plantain set foil folk vane maiden hair motherwort cow edge goldenrod Grom wall dill seeds used in plague water hearts tongue horehound fennel many lot sent John's wort comfrey feverfew red rose leaves wood sorrel hella Tori of the wall heart sees Centauri see drink a good handful of each of the aforesaid things gentian roots doc wrote butterbur roots peony roots by berries juniper berries of each of these I pound one ounce of nutmegs one ounce of cloves and half an ounce of mace pick the herbs and flowers and shred them a little cut the roots bruised the berries and pound the spices fine take a pack of green walnuts and chop them small mix all these together and lay them to steep in sack Lee's or any white wine Lee's if not in good spirits but wine Lee's are best let them lie a week or better be sure to stir them once a day with a stick and keep them close covered then steal them in an Alembic with a slow fire and take care your still does not burn the first second and third running is good and some of the fourth let them stand till cold then put them together to make surfeit water you must take scurvy grass root lime watercresses Roman wormwood Roe mint warm sage clovers of each one handful green marry two handfuls poppies afresh half a peck if try a quarter of a peck cochineal six penny worth saffron six penny worth aniseeds caraway seeds coriander seeds cardamom seeds of H an ounce licorice two ounces scraped fake split a pound raisins of the Sun stoned a pound juniper berries an ounce bruised nutmeg an ounce bait mace an ounce bruised sweet fennel seeds and ounce bruised a few flowers of rosemary marigold and sage flowers put all these into a large stone jar and put to them three gallons of French brandy cover it close and let it stand near the fire for three weeks stir it three times a week and be sure to keep it close stopped and then strain it off bottle your liquor and pour on the ingredients a gallon more of French brandy let it stand a week stirring it once a day then distill it in a cold snail and this will make a fine white surf at water you may make this water at any time of the year if you live at London because the ingredients are always to be had either green or dry but it is best made in summer to make milk water take two good handfuls of warm woods as much car duis as much Roux four handfuls of meant as much form half as much Angelica cut these a little put them into a cold still and put to them three quarts of milk let your fire be quick till your still drops and then slacken your fire you may draw off two quarts the first quart will keep all the year how to distill vinegar you have in the chapter of pickles end of section 37 section 3 I ate of the Arts of cookery made plain and easy by Hannah glasse this LibriVox recording is in the public domain chapter xxi come to market and the seasons of the year for butchers meat poultry fish herbs roots etc and fruit pieces in a bullock the head tongue palate the entrails are the sweet breads kidneys skirts and tripe there is the double the roll and the reed tribe the four quarter first is the haunch which includes the clawed marrow bone shin and the sticking piece that is the neck end the next is the leg of mutton piece which has part of the blade bone then the chuck the brisket the four ribs and the middle rib which is called the chuck rib the hindquarter first sirloin and rump the thin and thick flank the veiny piece then the iske bone or chuck bone buttock and leg in a shape the head and pluck which includes the liver lights heart sweetbreads and melt the four quarter the neck breast and shoulder the hind quarter the leg and lauren the two loins together is called a china of mutton which is a fine joint when it is the little fat mutton in a calf the head and inwards saw the pluck which contains the heart liver lights nuts and melts and what they call the skirts which heat finally broiled the throat sweetbreads and the windpipe sweetbreads which is the finest the full quarter is the shoulder neck and breast the hind quarter is the leg which contains the knuckle and fill it then the loin in a house slam the head and pluck that is the liver lights heart nuts and melt then there is the fry which is the sweetbreads lamb stones and skirts with some of the liver the fall quarter is the shoulder neck and breasts together the hind quarter is the leg and loin this is in high season at Christmas but lasts all the year grass lamb comes in in April or May according to the season of the year and holds good till the middle of August in a hog the head and inwards and that is the Haslett which is the liver and crow kidney and skirts it is mixed with a great deal of sage and sweet herbs pepper salt and spice so rolled in the call and roasted then there are the chitling and the guts which are cleaned for sausages the full quarter is the full loin and spring if a large hog you make art a spare rib off the hind quarter only leg and loin a bacon hog this has cut different because of making hams bacon and pickled pork here you have fine spareribs chines and Gris skins and fat for hogs lard the liver and crow is much admired fried with bacon the feet and ears are both equally good sales pork comes in season at Bartholomew tired and holds good till lady die how to choose butchers meat to choose lamb in a four quarter of lamb mind the neck vein if it be an azure blue it is new and good but if greenish or yellowish it is near tainting if not tainted already in the hind quarter smell under the kidney and try the knuckle if you meet with a faint scent and the knuckle be limber it's his style killed for a lamb's head mind the eyes if they be sunk or wrinkled it is style if plump and lively it is new and sweet veil if the bloody vein in the shoulder looks blue or a bright red it is new killed but if blackish greenish or yellowish it is flabby and style if wrapped in wet cloths smell whether it be musty or not the law in first taints under the kidney and the flesh if style killed will be soft and slimy the breast and neck taints first at the upper end and you will perceive some dusky yellowish greenish appearance the sweetbread on the breast will be clammy otherwise it is fresh and good the leg is known to be new for the stiffness of the joint if limber and the flesh seems clammy and has green or yellowish specks it is style the head is known as the Lambs the flesh of a bull calf is more red and firm than that of a cow calf and the fat more hard and curdled mutton if the mutton be young the flesh will pinch tender if old it will wrinkle and remain so if young the fats will easily part from the lane if old it will stick by strings and skins if rare mutton the fat feels spongy the flesh close-grained and tough not rising again when dented with your finger if you mutton the flesh is paler than whether mutton they close a grain and easily parting if there be a rot the flesh will be pale ish and the fat to faint whitish inclining to yellow and the flesh will be loose at the bone if you squeeze it hard some drops of water will stand up like sweat as to the newness and style nurse the same is to be observed as by lamb beef if it be right ox beef it will have an open grain if yawn a tender and oily smoothness if rough and spongy it is old or inclining to be so except neck brisket and such parts as are very vibrance which in young meat will be more rough than in other parts a carnation pleasant color betokens good spending meat the suet a curious white yellowish is not so good quel beef is less bound and closer grained than the Ox the fat whites are but the lean somewhat paler if young the dense you make with your finger will rise again in a little time ball beef is of a closed grain deep dusky red toughen pinching the fat skinny hard and has a REMIC rank smell and for newness and style nurse this flesh bought fresh has but few signs the more material is its clamminess and the rest your smell will inform you if it be bruised these places will look more dusky or blackish than the rest pork if it be young the lane will break in pinching between your fingers and if you nip the skin with your nails it will make a dent also if the fat be soft and pulpy in a manner like lard if the lien be tough and the fat flabby and spongy failing rough it is old especially if the rind be stubborn and you cannot nip it with your nails if of a bore though young or of a hog gelded at full growth the flesh will be hard tough reddish and ramish of smell the fat skinny and hard the skin very thick and tough and pinched up will immediately fall again as for old and new killed try the legs hands and Springs by putting your finger under the bone that comes out for if it be tainted you will there find it by smelling your finger besides the skin will be sweaty and clammy when style but cool and smooth when new if you find little kernels in the fat of the pork like higher shot if many it is measly and dangerous to be eaten how to choose brawn venison Westphalia hams etc brawn is known to be old or young by the Extra Ordinary or moderate thickness of the rind the thick is old the moderate is young if the rind and fat be very tender it is not for brawn but borrow or sell venison troy the haunches or shoulders under the bones that come out with your finger or knife and as the scent is sweet or rank it is new or style and the like of the sides in the most fleshy parts if tainted they will look greenish in some places or more than ordinary black look on the hooves and if the cliffs are very wide and rough it is old if close and smooth it is young the season for venison the but venison begins in May and is in high season till all hallows die the dough is in season from Michaelmas to the end of December or sometimes to the end of January Westphalia hands and English bacon put a knife under the bone that sticks out of the ham and if it comes out in a manner clean and has a curious flavor it is sweet and good if much smeared and dulled it is tainted or speak English Gammons or tried the same way and for other parts try the fad if it be white oily and failing does not break or crumble good but at the contrary and the lien has some little streaks of yellow it is rusty or will soon be so to choose butter cheese and eggs when you buy butter trust not to that which will be given you to taste but try in the middle and if your smell and taste be good you cannot be deceived cheese is to be chosen by its moist and smooth coat if old cheese be rough coated rugged or dry at top beware of little worms or mites if it be over full of holes moist or spongy it is subject to maggots if any soft or parish Pleiss appear on the outside Troy how deep it goes for the greater part may be hid within eggs hope the great end to your tongue if it feels warm be sure it is new if cold it is bad and so in proportion to the hate and cold so is the goodness of the egg another way to know a good egg is to put the egg into a pan of cold water the fresher the egg the sooner it will fall to the bottom if rotten it will swim at the top this is also Ashura way not to be deceived as to the keeping of them pitch them all with the small end downwards in fine wood ashes turning them once a week end ways unable keep some months poultry in season January hen turkeys capons bullets with eggs fowls chickens hares all sorts of wild fowl tame rabbits and tame pigeons february turkeys and pullets with eggs capons fowls small chickens hares all sorts of wild fowl which in this month begin to decline tame and wild pigeons time rabbits green geese young ducklings and turkey poults March this month the same as the preceding month and in this month wild fowl goes quite out they Pro bullets spring fowls chickens pigeons young wild rabbits leverets young geese ducklings and turkey poults May and June the same July the same with young partridges pheasants and wild ducks called flappers or Moltres August the same September October November and December in these months all sorts of fowl both wild and tame are in season and in the three last is the full season for all manner of wild fowl how to choose poultry to know whether a cape on is a true one young or old new or style if he be young his Spurs are short and his legs smooth if a true cape on a fat vine on the side of his breast the comb pile and a thick belly and rump if new he will have a clothes hard vent if style a loose open vent I caught cor hen Turkey turkey poults if the be young his legs will be black and smooth and his Spurs short if style his eyes will be sunk in his head and the feet dry if new the eyes lively and feet limber observed the liked by the hen and moreover if she be with egg she will have a soft open vent if not a hard closed vent turkey poults unknown the same way and their age cannot deceive you a hen etc if young his Spurs are shortened dubbed but take particular notice they are not paired nor scraped if old he will have an open vent but if new a closed hard vent and so of a hen for newness or style nurse if old her legs and comb are rough if young smooth a tame goose wild goose and brine goose if the bill be yellowish and she has but few hairs she is young but if full of hairs and the bill and foot red she is old if new limber footed if style dry footed and so of a wild goose and bran goes wild and tine ducks the dark when fat is hard and thick on the belly but if not thin and lean if new limber footed if style try footed a true wild duck has a reddish foot smaller than the time one God Wits marl knots ruffs gull daughter'll 's and wheat ears if these be old their legs will be rough if young smooth if fat a fat rump if new limber footed if style dry footed pheasant and hen the when young has dub Spurs when old sharp small Spurs if new a fat vent and if style an open flabby one the hen if young has smooth legs and her flesh of a curious grain if with egg she will have a soft open vent and if not a close one for newness or style nurse as the cork Heath and pheasant pulps if new they will be stiff and white in the vent and the feet limber if fat they will have a hard vent if style dry footed and limber and if touched they will peel heath and hen if young they have smooth legs and bills and if old rough for the rest they are known as the full going partridge and hen the bill white and the legs bluish shoe age four if young the bill is black and the legs yellowish if new a fast vent if style a green and open one if their crops be full and they have fed on green wait they might ain't there and for this smell in their mouth Woodcock and snipe the Woodcock if fat is thick and hard if nu limber footed when style dry footed or if their noses are snotty and their throats muddy and Moorish they are nought a snipe if fat has a fat vine in the side under the wing and in the vent feels thick for the rest like the Woodcock doves and pigeons to know the Turtledove look for a blueish ring round his neck and the rest mostly white the stalked of his bigger and the ring dove is less than the stock dove the dove house pigeons when old are red legs if new and fat they will fail full and fat in the vents and are limber footed but if style a flabby and green vent and so green or grey plover field fair Blackbird thrush larks etc of hair Leverett or rabbits hair will be whitish and stiff if new and clean killed if style the flesh blackish in most parts and the body limb bar if the cleft in her lips spread very much and her claws wide and ragged she is old and the contrary young if the hair be young the ears will tear like a piece of brown paper if old dry and tough to know a true Leverett feel on the fore leg near the foot and if there be a small bone or knob it is right if not it is a hair for the rest observe as in a hare a rabbit if style will be limber and slimy if new white and stiff if old her claws are very long and rough the wool mottled with gray hairs if young the claws and wool smooth fish in season Candlemas quarter lobsters crabs crawfish river crawfish guard fish mackerel bream bärbel roach shad or a lock lamprey or lamb perrales dice blake prawns and horse mackerel the Yale's that are taken in running water are better than pond ales of these the silver ones are most esteemed midsummer quarter Turbots and trout's soles Briggs and shaft legs and glutes teens salmon dolphin flying fish sheep head Tallis both land and sea sturgeon sail chub lobsters and crabs sturgeon is a fish commonly found in the northern but now and then we find them in our great rivers the Thames the seven and the Tyne this fish is of a very large size and will sometimes measure 18 feet in length they are much esteemed when fresh cut in pieces roasted baked or pickled for cold trades the caviar is esteemed a dainty which is the spawn of this fish the latter end of this quarter come smells Michaelmas quarter cod and haddock coalfish white and pelting Haig laying tusks and mullet red and grey Weaver Gurnett rocket herrings sprats souls and flounders place dabs and smear dabs hails chars skite thornback and hamlin Kinson oysters and scallops sea perch and carped pike 10 CH and C 10 CH Skype maids are black and thornback maids white grey bass comes with the mullet in this quarter are fine smells and hold till after Christmas there are two sorts of mullets the sea mullet and river mullet both equally good Christmas quarter Dory freyal gudgeons Golan smelts Crouch perch HOV and loach scholar and Wilkes periwinkles cockles mussels gear bear Burt and Hollow bet he'll to choose fish to choose salmon Pike trout carp tench grayling bärbel chub rough ale whiting smelt shared etc all these are known to be new or style by the color of their gills and the easiness or hardness to Oh earn the hanging or keeping up of their fins the standing out or sinking of their eyes etc and by smelling their gills turbot he is chosen by his thickness and plumpness and if his belly be of a cream color he must spend well but if thin and his belly of a bluish white he will eat very loose Cod and to codling choose him by his thickness towards his head and the whiteness of his flesh when it is carts and so of a coddling Ling full droid Ling choose that which is thickest in the pole and the flesh of the brightest yellow skate and thornback these are chosen by their thickness and the XI skate is the sweetest especially if large souls these are chosen by their thickness and stiffness when their bellies are of a cream color they spend the firmer sturgeon if it cuts without crumbling and the veins and bristles give a true-blue where they appear and the flesh are perfect white then conclude it to be good fresh herrings and mackerel if their gills are rather lively shining redness and their eyes stand full and the fish is stiff then they are new but if dusky and faded or sinking and wrinkled and tiles limber they are style lobsters choose them by their weight the heaviest are best if no water be in them if new the tile will pull smart like a spring if full the middle of the tile will be full of hard or reddish skin mate lobster is known by the narrow back part of the tile and the two uppermost fins within his tile are stiff and hard but the hen is soft and the back of her tile broader prawns shrimps and crab fish the two first if style will be limber and cast a kind of slimy smell their color fading and they slimy the latter will be limber in their claws and joints their red color turned blackish and dusky and will have an ill smell under their throats otherwise all of them are good place and flounders if they are stiff and their eyes be not sunk or look dull they are new the contrary when style the best sort of place looked bluish on the belly pickled salmon if the flesh feels oily and the scales are stiff and shining and it comes in flakes and parts without crumbling then it is new and good and not otherwise pickled and red herrings for the first open the back to the bone and if the flesh be white sleeky and oily and the bones white or a bright red they are good if red herrings carry a good gloss part well from the bone and smell well then conclude them to be good throats and garden staff throughout the year January fruits yet lasting are some grapes the Kentish russet golden French curtain and Dutch Pippins John apples winter queening 's the marigold and Harvey apples palm water golden Dorset Rena ting loves pear mine and the winter pear mine winter bergamot winter bon chrétien winter mask winter Norwich and great serene pairs all garden things much the same as in December February fruits yet lasting the same as in January except the golden Pippen and pom water also the Pommery and the winter peppering and dagger bent pair March fruits yet lasting the golden duck at Dorset's Pippins Redding's loves pear Maine and John apples the latter bond chrétien and double blossom pear April fruits yet lasting you have now in the kitchen garden and orchard autumn carrots winter spinach sprouts of cabbage and cauliflower 's turnip tops asparagus young radishes Dutch Brown lettuce and cress Bernhard young onions scallions leeks and early kidney beans on hot beds purslane cucumbers and mushrooms some cherries green apricots and gooseberries for tarts Pippins Doron Westbury Apple russet Inge gillyflower the latter bong chrétien Opare etc may the products of the kitchen and fruit garden asparagus cauliflowers imperial Silesia royal and cabbage lettuces Burnett's purslane cucumbers nasturtium flowers peas and beans sown in October artichokes scarlet strawberries and kidney beans upon the hot beds may cherries may juice on wolves green apricots and gooseberries Pippins Devens or John Apple Westbury apples Russa ting gillyflower apples the codling etc the great car vile winter bon chrétien black Worcester pear Tsar in and double blossom pear now is the proper time to distill herbes which are in their greatest perfection June the products of the kitchen and fruit garden asparagus garden beans and peas kidney beans cauliflower artichokes battersea and Dutch cabbage melons on their first ridges young onions carrots and parsnips sown in February purslane borage Burnet the flowers of nasturtium the Dutch Brown the Imperial the Royal the Silesia and cost lettuces some blanched endive and cucumbers and all sorts of pot-herbs gringas breeze strawberries some raspberries currants white and black Duke cherries red hearts the Flemish and carnation cherries goblins genetics and the masculine apricots and in the forcing frames all the forward kind of grapes July the products of the kitchen and fruit garden Ron Savile and winged pears garden and kidney beans cauliflower cabbages artichokes and their small suckers all sorts of kitchen and aromatic herbs salads such as cabbage lettuce purslane Burnett young onions cucumbers blanched endive carrots turnips beets nasturtium flowers musk melons wood strawberries currants goose berries raspberries red and white genetics the Margaret Apple the primate russet summer green chisel and purl pears the carnation maurella great Bearer Morocco or agate and beggar row cherries the Nutmeg isabella persian Newington violet Moscow and Rambouillet peaches nectarines the primordial my robe Allan red blue amber Damus pear apricot and cinnamon plums also the key and lady Elizabeth's plums etc some figs and grapes walnuts in high season to pickle and rock samphire the fruit yet lasting of the last year is the Doron and winter resetting August the product of the kitchen and fruit garden cabbages and their sprouts cauliflower artichokes cabbage lettuces baits carrots potatoes turnip some beans pays kidney beans and all sorts of kitchen herbs radishes horseradish cucumbers presses some tarragon onions garlic Roe Campbell's melons and cucumbers for pickling goose berries raspberries currants grapes figs mulberries and filbert's apples the Windsor sovereign orange bergamot slipper red Catherine King Catherine penny Prussian summer pop earning sugar and Loudon pears chrome Bordeaux lever dis burt savoy and well Akata peaches the Moroi tawny red Roman little green cluster and yellow nectarines imperial blue dates yellow late pair black pair white nutmeg late pair great Anthony or Turkey and join plums cluster muscadine and cornelian graves September the product of the kitchen and fruit garden garden and some kidney beans run servile peas artichokes radishes cauliflower cabbage lettuce Chris's chervil onions tarragon Burnett celery in dive mushrooms carrots turnips spirits baits scores and error horseradish garlic shallots Roe cam Bowl cabbage and their sprouts with savoy which are better when more sweetened with the frost peaches grapes figs hares plums walnuts filbert's almonds quinces melons and cucumbers October the product of the kitchen and fruit garden some cauliflower artichokes peas beans cucumbers and melons also July sown kidney beans turnips carrots parsnips potatoes spirits scores and error beets onions garlic shallots rhogam Bowl chard owns pressors chervil mustard radish rape spinach lettuce small and cabbage Burnett tarragon blanched celery and endive late peaches and plums grapes and figs mulberries filbert's and walnuts the Bullis Klein's and Arbutus and great variety of apples and pears November the product of the kitchen and fruit garden cauliflowers in the greenhouse and some artichokes carrots parsnips turnips beets spirits scores and error horseradish potatoes onions garlic shallots broken bowl celery parsley sorrow thyme savory sweet marjoram dry and Clary cabbages and their sprouts savoy cabbage spinach lake cucumbers hot herbs on the hot bed Burnett cabbage lettuce endive blanched several sorts of apples and pears some Bullas meddlers Arbutus walnuts hazelnuts and chestnuts December the product of the kitchen and fruit garden many sorts of cabbages and Savoy's spinach and some cauliflower Xin the conservatory and artichokes in sand roots we have as in the last month small herbs on the hot beds for salads also mint tarragon and cabbage letters preserved under glasses chervil celery and endive blanched sage thyme savory beet leaves tops of young beets parsley sorrel spinach leeks and sweet marjoram marigold flowers and mint dried asparagus on the hot bed and cucumbers on the plants sown in July and August and plenty of pears and apples end of section 38