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This is a little cookbook of vegetarian recipes, which were only slowly gaining popularity in England at the time of its publication in 1891. The recipes are all very clearly described, and any modern listener should be able to try them out if any of them strike their fancy. – Summary by Carolin
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section one of Cassell's vegetarian cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Betty bee Cassell's vegetarian cookery by Arthur gay Payne preface the present work though written upon strictly vegetarian principles is by no means addressed to vegetarians only on the contrary we hope that the following pages of recipes will be read by that enormous class throughout the country who during the last few years have been gradually changing their mode of living by eating far less meat and taking vegetables and farinaceous food as a substitute where there are thousands or vegetarians from choice there are tens of thousands who are virtually vegetarians from necessity again there is another large class who from time to time adopt a vegetarian course of diet on the ground of health and as a means of escaping from the pains attendant on gout liver complaint or dyspepsia the class we most wish to reach however is that one increasingly fear whose whole life is one continual struggle not merely to live but to live decently it may seem a strong statement but we believe it to be a true one that only those who have tried a strictly vegetarian course of diet know what real economy means should the present work be the means of enabling even one family to become not only better in health but richer and pocket it will not have been written in vain AG pain end of section 1 section 2 of Cassell's vegetarian cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Betty bee Cassell's betcha cherry and cookery by Arthur gaping introduction we wish it to be distinctly understood at starting that the present work is purely a cookery book written on the principles generally adopted by vegetarians and as until quite recently there seemed to be in the minds of many some doubt as to the definition of vegetarianism we will quote the following explanation from the head of the report of the London vegetarian society the aims of the London vegetarian society are to advocate the total disuse of the flesh of animals fish flesh and fowl as food and to promote a more extensive use of pulse grains fruits nuts and other products of the vegetable kingdom thus propagating a principle tending essentially to true civilization to universal humane as' and to the increase of happiness generally we have no intention of writing a treatise on vegetarianism but we consider a few words of explanation necessary years back many persons were under the impression that by vegetarianism was meant simply an abstention from flesh meat but that fish was allowed such however is not the case according to the rules of most of the vegetarian societies of the day on the other hand strictly speaking real vegetarians would not be allowed the use of eggs and milk but it appears that many use these though there are a considerable number of persons who abstain there is no doubt that the vegetable kingdom without either milk or eggs contains every requisite for the support of the human body in speaking on the subject Sir Henry Thompson observes the vegetable kingdom comprehends the cereals legumes roots starches sugar herbs and fruits persons who style themselves vegetarians often consume milk eggs butter and lard which are choice foods from the animal kingdom there are other persons of course who are strictly vegetarian eaters and such a lone have any right to the title of vegetarians in the following pages will be ample recipes for the benefit of parties who take either view in questions of this kind there will always be found conflicting views we have no wish or desire to give opinions but consider it would be more advisable and probably render the book far more useful if we confine ourselves as much as possible to facts the origin of vegetarianism is as old as the history of the world itself and probably from time immemorial there have been sects which have practiced vegetarianism either as a religious duty or under the belief that they would render the body more capable of performing religious duties in the year one thousand ninety eight or two years prior to the date of Henry the first there was a strictly vegetarian society formed in connection with the Christian Church which lived entirely on herbs and roots and the society has lasted to the present day again there have been many sects who not so strict have allowed themselves the use of fish again there are those who adopt a vegetarian course of diet on the ground of Health many maintained the diseases like gout and dyspepsia would disappear where vegetarian diets strictly adhere to on the other hand we have physicians who maintain that the great cause of indigestion is not eating enough an American physician some years ago alleged he had discovered the cause his argument being that the more worked the stomach had to do the stronger it would become on the same principle that the arm of a blacksmith is more powerful in consequence of hard work of one thing we are certain and that is there will always be rival physicians and rival sects but the present work will simply be a guide to those who require from whatever cause a light form of diet perhaps the greatest benefit vegetarians can do their cause and there are many who think very strongly on the subject is to endeavor to take a dispassionate view Rome was not built in a day and if we look back at the past history of this country during the last half century in regard to food we shall see that there have been many natural changes at work waves of thought take place backwards and forwards but still the tide may flow some fifty years ago there was undoubtedly a strong impression with a large number of right minded people that plenty of meat beer and wine were good for all even for young children the medical profession was very apt to run in flocks and follow some well-known leader at the period to which we refer numbers of anxious mothers would have regarded the advice to bring up their children as vegetarians and teetotalers as positive cruelty this old-fashioned idea has passed away one great motive for adopting a course of vegetarian diet is economy and here we feel that we stand on firm ground without danger of offending sincere opinions which are often wrongly called prejudices to a great extent the majority of the human race are virtually vegetarians from necessity nor do we find feebleness either of mind or body necessarily ensues we believe there are tens of thousands of families who would give vegetarianism at trial were it not for fear persons are to have to think that bodily strength depends upon the nature of the food we eat in India we have a feeble race living chiefly on rice on the other hand in China for bodily strength few can compare with the coolies for many years in Scotland the majority lived on oatmeal while in Ireland they lived on potatoes we do not wish to argue anything from these points but to bring them forward for consideration probably strength of body and mind as a general rule depends upon breed and this argument tells two ways it does not follow that vegetarians will be necessarily strong and will cease to be cruel nor does it follow that those who have been accustomed all their lives to eat meat will cease to be strong should they become vegetarians as we have said the great motive that induces many to give vegetarianism a trial is economy and if persons would once get rid of the idea they risk their health by making a trial much would be done to advance the cause another great reason for persons hesitating to make a trial is the Revolution it would create in their households here again we are beset by difficulties and these difficulties can only disappear gradually after long years of patience we believe the progress towards vegetarianism must of necessity be a very slow one no large Weston tradesmen could possibly insist upon his whole establishment becoming vegetarians because he becomes one himself we believe and hope that the present work will benefit those who are undergoing a slow but gradual change in their mode of living this is easiest in small households where no servants are kept at all where the mistress is both cook and mother it is in such households that the change is possible and very often most desirable in many cases trial will be made gradually the great difficulty to contend with is prejudice or rather we may say habit there are many housekeepers who feel that their bill affair would instantly become extremely limited were they to adopt a vegetarian ideas there are a few better dinners especially for children than a good basin of soup with plenty of bread yet as a rule there are a few housekeepers who would know how to make vegetarian soup at all in our present work we have given a list of 64 soups at any rate here is no lack of variety as small housekeepers in this country are not famed for their knowledge of soup making even with gravy beef at their disposal on looking down at this list it will be observed that in many cases cream or at any rate milk is recommended we can well imagine the housekeeper exclaiming I don't call this economy this is one point about which we consider a few words of explanation necessary we will suppose a family of eight who have been accustomed to live in the ordinary way are going to have a vegetarian dinner by way of trial some soup has to be made and one two vegetables from the garden or the greengrocers as the case may be are going to be cooked on a new method and the housekeeper's horrified at the amount of butter she finds recommended for the sauce people must however bear in mind that changes are gradual and that often at first starting a degree of richness or what they would consider extravagance is advisable if they wish to reconcile others to the change in our dinner of eight we would first ask them how much meat would they have allowed ahead at the very lowest computation it could not have been done decently under a quarter of a pound each even if the dish of meat took the economical form of an Irish stew and had a joint such as a leg of mutton been placed upon the table it would probably have been considerably more than double supposing however instead of the meat we have three vegetables say haricots beans potatoes and a cabbage with the assistance of some really good butter sauce these vegetables eaten with bread make an agreeable meal which especially in hot weather would probably be a pleasant change supposing for the sake of argument you use a half pound of butter and making the butter sauce this sounds too ordinary cooks very extravagant even supposing butter to be only one shilling per pound suppose however this half a pound of butter is used as a means of going without a leg of mutton that is the chief point to be borne in mind in a variety of recipes to follow the cream butter and eggs are often recommended in what will appear as wholesale quantities but as a set-off against this you have no butchers bill at all we do not maintain the disappearin limited use of butter eggs and occasionally cream is necessary but we believe that there are many families who will be only able to make the change by substituting nice dishes at any rate at first starting to make up for the loss of meat it is only by substituting a pleasant kind of food that many will be induced even to attempt to change gradually the living will become cheaper and cheaper but it is unwise to attempt in a family to do too much at once there are many soups we have given in which cream is recommended for instance artichoke soup bean soup cauliflower soup and celery soup after partaking of a well made Basin of one of these soups followed by one or two vegetables and a fruit pie or stewed fruit there are many persons who would voluntarily remark I don't seem to care for any meat on the other hand where the vegetables served in the old-fashioned way but without any meat there are many who would feel that they were undergoing a species of privation even if they did not say so we refer to a dish of plain boiled potatoes and dry bread or even the ordinary cabbage served in the usual way supposing however a nice little new cabbage is sent to table with plenty of really good white sauce or butter sauce over which has been sprinkled a little bright green parsley while some crisp fried bread surrounds the dish the cabbage is converted into a meal and if we take into account the absence of the meat we still save enormous Lee the advice we would give especially to young housekeepers is persuasion is better than force if you wish to teach a child to swim it is far easier to entice him into shallow water on a hot summer's day than to throw him in against his will in wintertime another point which we consider of great importance is appearances as far as possible we should endeavour to make the dishes look pretty we are appealing to a very large class throughout the country who had all cost wished to keep up appearances it is an important class and one on which the slow but gradual march of civilization depends we fear that any attempt to improve the extreme poor who lives surrounded by dirt and misery would be hopeless unless they still have some lingering feeling of the self-respect for the poor woman who snatches a meal of bread and dripping which she eats without a tablecloth and then repairs to the gin shop to wash it down nothing can be this class will gradually die out as civilization advances this is seen even in the present day in America fortunately there is plenty of scope and vegetarian cooking not merely for refinement but even elegance do not despise the sprinkle of chopped parsley and red specks of breadcrumbs colored with cochineal so often referred to throughout the following pages remember that the cost of these little accessories to comfort is virtually nil we must remember also that one sense works upon another we can please the palate through the eye there is some undoubted connection between these senses if you doubt it suck a lemon in front of a German band and watch the result the sight of meat causes the saliva to run from the mouths of the carnivorous animals at the zoo this is often noticeable in the case of a dog watching people eat and it is an old saying it makes one's mouth water to look at it in the case of endeavoring to induce a change of living in grown-up persons such as husband or children there's perhaps no method we can pursue so efficacious as that of making dishes look pretty a dish of bright red tomatoes were posing on the white bosom of a bed of macaroni reliev'd here and there by a few specks of green what a difference to a similar dish all mashed up together and in which the macaroni showed signs of dirty smears we have endeavored throughout this book to give chiefly directions about those dishes which will replace meat for instance the vast majority of pies and puddings will remain the same and need no detailed treatment here butter supplies the place of suet or lard and in the ordinary cookery book will be found sufficient for the purpose but it is in dealing with soups sauces rice macaroni and vegetables sent a table under new conditions that we hope this book will be found most useful as a rule English women cooks especially when their title to the name depends upon their being the mistress of the house will often find that soups and sauces are a weak point do not despise in cooking little things those who really understand such matters will know how vast is the difference in flavor occasion by the addition of that pinch of time or teaspoon full of savory herbs and yet there are tens of thousands of houses where meat is eaten every day who never had a bottle of time at their disposal in their lives as we have said if we are going to make a great saving on meat we can well afford a few trifles so long as they are trifles a six penny bottle of thyme will last for months and if we give up our gravy beef or piece of pickled pork or two pennyworth of bones as the case may be surely we can afford a little indulgence of this kind a few words on the subject of fritters when will Inc Ebers grasp the idea of frying they cannot get beyond a dab of grease or butter in a frying pan the bath of boiling oil seems to be beyond them or in any rate a degree of civilization that is not yet passed beyond the limit of the fried fish shop the oil will do over and over again and in the end is undoubtedly cheaper than the dab of grease or butter thrown away there are hundreds of men who in hot weather would positively prefer a well-cooked vegetable fritter to meat but yet they rarely get it at home fruit fritters are also very economical orange fritters apple fritters etc because the batter helps to make the dish a meal those who have practiced vegetarianism for many years will probably be of opinion that we have not called sufficient attention to the subject of fruit and nuts this is not because we do not believe in their usefulness but because we think that those who are changing their mode of living will be far better enabled to do so without discomfort by making their chief alterations and diet in the directions we have pointed out there is moreover little or no cookery involved in these articles of the wholesomeness of fresh fruit all are agreed and as people become more advanced vegetarians the desire for fruit and nuts will follow in due course in future years as the demand increases the supply will increase but this is a question of time lookers-on often see more of the game than the players it is not because the sudden change might not be beneficial but because sudden changes are only likely to be effected in rare instances that we have taken the view we have prejudice is strong and it would be very difficult to persuade persons unless they had been gradually brought to the change to regard nuts in the light of food to suggest a meal of Brazil nuts would – many have a tendency to put vegetarianism in a ridiculous light and nothing kills so readily as ridicule in conclusion it will be observed that from time to time we have used the expression if wine be allowed there is no necessary connection between vegetarianism and teetotalism but it would be a affectation to deny the fact that they are generally connected of the numerous arguments brought forward by the advocates of vegetarianism one is that in the opinion of many who speak with authority a vegetarian diet is best adapted to those of whom unfortunately there are many who from time to time have a craving for more stimulant than is beneficial to their health many medical men are of the opinion that large meat eaters require alcoholic stimulant and that they can give up the latter more easily by abstaining from the former this is a question for medical men to decide as it does not properly come into the province of the cook we have repeatedly mentioned the addition of wine and the course but when these are used for flavoring purposes it is not to be regarded in the same light as if taken alone there is a common sense in these matters which should never be overlooked the teetotaler who attended the Lord Mayor's dinner and refused his glass of punch with his turtle soup would be consistent but to refuse the turtle soup itself on the ground that a little wine probably Madeira might have been added would proclaim him to be a fattest it is to be regretted that in the present day so many good causes have been injured by this ostentation of hearing ideas to an extreme practically where wine is used in cookery it is added solely for the peculiar flavor and the alcohol itself is evaporated to be consistent the vast majority of teetotal drinks and possibly even stewed fruit itself would have to be refused on the same ground these an almost infinitely small trace of alcohol we think it best to explain the reason we have introduced the expression if wine be allowed in each case it is used for flavoring and flavoring purposes only we know that with some persons a very small amount of stimulant creates a desire for more and when this is the case the small quantities should be avoided but in the case of the quantity being so infinitely small that it ceases to have this effect even if not boiled away as it really is no harm can possibly arise where wine is added to soups and sauces and exposed to heat this would be the case on the other hand in the case of tipsy cake and wine added to compote of fruit this would probably not be the case a great distinction should be drawn between such cases it will be found however that in every case we have mentioned the addition is altogether optional or a substitute like lemon juice can be used in its place end of section 2 section 3 of Cassell's vegetarian cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Betty bee Cassell's vegetarian cookery by Arthur gay Payne vegetarian cookery chapter one sous general instructions there are very few persons unless they have made vegetarian cookery a study who are aware what a great variety of soups can be made without the use of meat or fish ordinary cookery books have the one exception of what is called soup anger in England it seems to be the impression that the goodness of the soup depends upon the amount of nourishment that can be compressed into a small space it is however a great mistake to think that because we take a large amount of nourishment we are necessarily nourished there is a limit though what that limit is no one can say beyond which soup becomes absolutely injurious a quarter of a pound of lightings extract of meat dissolved in half a pint of water is obviously an overdose of what is considered nourishment in France as a rule soup is prepared on an altogether different idea it is a light thin broth taken at the commencement of the meal to strengthen the stomach in order to render it capable of receiving more substantial food to follow vegetarian soups are of course to be considered from this latter point of view we think these few preliminary observations necessary as we have to overcome a very strong English prejudice which is too apt to despise everything of which the remark can be made ah but there is very little nourishment in it vegetarian soups as a rule and especially the thin ones must be regarded as a light and pleasant flavoring which with a small piece of white bread enables the most obstinately delicate stomach to commence over past that experience has found best adapted to its requirements the basis of all soup is stock and in making stock we of course have to depend upon vegetables fruit or some kind of farinaceous food to a certain extent the water in which any kind of vegetable has been boiled may be regarded as stock especially water that has boiled roots such as potatoes or grains such as rice it will not however be necessary to enter into any general description as to the best method of obtaining nutriment in a liquid form from vegetables and grain as directions will be given in each sfe but a few words are necessary on the general subject of flavoring stock in making ordinary soup we are very much dependent for flavor if the soup be good on the meat the vegetables acting only as accessories in making stop for vegetarian soups we are chiefly dependent for flavor on the vegetables themselves and consequently great care must be taken that these flavorings are properly blended the great difficulty in giving directions and cookery books and in understanding them when given is the insuperable one of avoiding vague expressions for instance suppose we read take 2 onions 1 carrot 1 turnip and 1 head of celery what does this mean it will be found practically that these directions vary considerably according to the neighborhood or part of the country in which we live for instance so much depends upon where we take our head of celery from suppose we bought our head of celery in Bond Street or the central arcade in Covent Garden Market on the one hand or off a barrow in the Mile End Road on the other again onions vary so much in size that we cannot draw any hard and fast line between a little pickling onion no bigger than a marble and a Spanish onion as big as a baby's head it would be possible to be very precise and say take so many ounces of celery or so many pounds of carrot but practically we cannot turn the kitchen into a chemist shop cooks whether told to you sell Rhian heads or ounces when act on guesswork just the same what are absolutely essential are two things common sense and experience again practically we must avoid giving too many ingredients novices in the art of cooking are of course unable to distinguish between those vegetables that are absolutely essential and those added to give a slight extra flavor but which make very little difference to the soup whether they are added or not you're often directed to add a few leaves of tarragon or chervil or a handful of sorrel of course in a large kitchen presided over by a franca telly these are easily obtainable but in ordinary private houses and in most parts of the country they are not only unobtainable but have never even been heard of at the greengrocers shop in making soups as a rule the four vegetables essential are onion celery carrot and turnip and we place them in their order of merit in making vegetarian soup it is very important that we should learn how to blend these without making any one flavor too predominant this can only be learned by experience if we have too much onion the soup tastes rank too much celery will make it bitter too much care and often renders the soup sweet and the turnip overpowers every other flavor again these vegetables vary so much in strength that were we to peel and weigh them the result would not be uniform in addition to the fact that not one cook in a thousand would take the trouble to do it perhaps the most dangerous vegetable with which we have to deal is turnip these vary so much in strength that sometimes even one slice of turnip will be found too strong in flavouring soups with these vegetables the first care should be to see that they are thoroughly cleansed in using celery too much of the green part should be avoided if you wish to make first-rate soup in using the onions if they are old and strong the core can be removed in using curat if you are going to have any soup where vegetables will be cut up and served in the soup you should always peel off the outside red part of the carrot and reserve it for this purpose and only use the inside or yellow part for flavoring purposes if is going to be thrown away or to lose its identity by being rubbed through a wire sieve with other vegetables with regard to turnip we can only add one word of caution not much we may hear mention before leaving the subject of ingredients that leeks and garlic are a substitute for onion and can also be used in conjunction with it as a role in vegetarian cookery Clair soups are rare and of course from an economical point of view they are not to be compared with thick soups some persons in making stock recommend what is termed brand tea half a pint of bran is boiled in about three pints of water and a certain amount of nutriment can be extracted from the bran which also imparts color for the purpose of coloring clear soups however there is nothing in the world to compare with what French cooks call caramel caramel is really burnt sugar there is a considerable art in preparing it as it is necessary that it should impart color and color only when prepared in the rough and ready manner a burning sugar and a spoon as is too often practiced in English kitchens this desideratum is never attained as you are bound to impart sweetness in addition to a burnt flavor the simplest and by far the most economical method of using caramel is to buy it ready-made it is sold by all grocers under the name of Parisian essence a small bottle costing about 8 pence will last a year and saves an infinite loss of time trouble and temper by far the most economical soups are the thick where all the ingredients can be rubbed through a wire synth thick soups can be divided into two classes ordinary brown suit and white soup the ordinary Brown is the most economical as in white soups milk is essential and if the soup is wish to be very good it is necessary to add a little cream soups Oh their thickness to two processes we can thicken the soup by adding flour of various kinds such as ordinary flour corn flour etc and soup can also be thickened by having some of the ingredients of which it is composed rubbed through a sieve this class of soups may be called purees for instance Palestine soup is really a puree of Jerusalem artichokes ordinary pea soup is a puree of split peas in making our ordinary vegetarian soups of all kinds as a rule all the ingredients should be rubbed through a sieve the economy of this is obvious on the face of it in the case of thickening soup by means of some kinds of flour for richness and flavor there is nothing to equal ordinary flour that has been cooked this is what Frenchmen call room as white and brown Roux are the very backbone of vegetarian cookery a few words of explanation may not be out of place on referring to the recipe for making white and brown roux it will be seen that it is simply flour cooked by means of frying it and butter in white roux each grain of flour is cooked till it is done in brown Roux each grain of flour is cooked till it is done brown we cannot exaggerate the importance of getting cooks to see the enormous difference between thickening soups or gravy with white or brown roux and simply thickening them with plain butter and flour the taste of the soup in the two cases is altogether different the difference is this suppose you have just been making some pastry some good rich puff paste you have got two pies and as you probably know this pastry is simply butter and flour place one pie in the oven and bake it till it is a nice rich brown now taste the pie crust it is probably delicious now taste the piece of the pie that has not been baked at all it is nauseous the difference is one is butter and flour that has been cooked the other is butter and flour that has not been cooked one word of warning in conclusion cook should always remember the good old saying that it is quite possible to have too much of a good thing they should be particularly worn to bear this in mind in adding herbs such as ordinary mixed flavoring herbs or as there sometimes called savory herbs and time this is also very important if wine is added to soup though as a role vegetarians rarely use wine in cooking but the same principle applies to the substitute for wine these lemon juice it is equally important to bear this in mind in using white and brown room if we make the soup too thick we spoil it and it is necessary to add water to bring it to its proper consistency which of course diminishes the flavor the proper consistency of any soup thickened with roux should be that of ordinary cream beyond this point the cooked flour will overpower almost every other flavor and the great beauty of vegetarian cookery is its simplicity it appeals to a taste that is refined and natural and not too one that has been depraved end of section 3 section 4 castles vegetarian cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by charlotte paris Kessel's vegetarian cookery by author gaping chapter 1 soups recipes part 1 stock strictly speaking in vegetarian cookery stock is the goodness and flavoring that can be extracted from vegetables the chief wants bean onion celery carrots and turnip in order to make stock take these vegetables cut them up into small pieces after having thoroughly cleanse them place them in a saucepan with sufficient water to cover them and let them boil gently for several hours the liquor when strained off may be called stock it can be flavored with a small quantity of savory herbs pepper and salt as well as a little from ketchup it can be colored with a few drops of Parisian essence or burnt sugar its consistency can be improved by the addition of a small quantity of cornflour sufficient cornflour must be added not to make it thick but like very thin gum in a broader sense the water in which rice lentils beans and potatoes have been boiled may be called stock again the water which macaroni vermicelli spaghetti and all kinds of Italian paste has been boiled may be called stock the use of liquors of this kind must be left to the common sense of the cook as of course it would only be obtainable when these materials are required for use brown and white thickening or goo it is of great importance for vegetarians always to have on hand a fairly good stock of white and brown goo as it is a great saving both of time and money as who will keep good for weeks and even months there is no fear of waste in making a quantity at a time take a pound of flour with a spoonful or two over see that it is trolly dry and then sift it next take a pound of butter and squeeze it in a cloth so as as much as possible to extract all the moisture from it next take a steel pan and enameled one is best and melt the butter till it runs to oil it will now be found that although the bulk of the butter looks like oil a certain amount of froth will rise to the top this must be carefully skimmed off continue to expose the butter to a gentle heat till the scum ceases to rise now pour all the oil butter very gently into a basin till you come to some dregs this should be thrown away or at any rate not used in making the room now mix the pound of dried and sifted flour with the oiled butter which is what the French cooks called clarified butter place it back in the steel pan protis to pan over tolerably good fire but not too fierce as there is a day your ovens burning with the wooden spoon keep stirring this mixture and keep scraping the bottom of the steel pan first in one place and then in another being specially careful on the edges to prevent it's burning gradually the mixture will begin to turn colour as soon as this turn of color is perceptible take out half and put it in a basin this is a white hoe namely flour cooked in butter but not discolored beyond a very trifling amount keep the steel pan on the fire and go on stirring the remainder which will get gradually darker and darker in color as soon as the colour is that of light chocolates remove the Stupin from the fire altogether but still continue scraping and stirring a few minutes longer as the animal retains the heats to such an extent that it will sometimes burn after it has been removed from the fire it is important not to have the mixture too dark and it will be found by experience that it gets darker at the stoop and has been removed from the fire when we say light chocolate we refer to the color of the cake of chocolate that has been broken the inside is the color not the outside it is advisable sometimes to have buy already a large slice of onion and if you think it is dark enough you can throw this in and immediately by this means it's lacking the heat pour the brown hole into a separate basin and put them by for use in the houses of most vegetarians more white rule will be used and Brown consequently more than half should be removed if this is the case when the who first commences to turn color when the brown who gets cold it has all the appearance of chocolates and when you use it it is best to scrape of the quantity you require with a spoon but not added to soups or sauces in one lump almond soup take half a pound of sweet elements and blanch them that is throw them into boiling water till the outside skin can be wrapped up easily with a finger then immediately throw the white into cold water otherwise they will quickly lose their white color like potatoes that have been peeled next slice up an onion and have a small head of celery and let this simmer gently in a quarte of milk in the meantime round 2 almonds with four hard-boiled the yolks of egg strain out the milk and add the powdered almonds and egg to the milk gradually and let it boil over the fire add sufficient white who till the soup because of the consistency of cream serve some fried or toasted bread with the soup it is a great improvement to add half a pinch of cream but this makes the soup much more expensive the soup can be flavored with a little white pepper not a beanie the onion and celery that was trained up can be used again for flavoring purposes Apple soup this is a German recipe take half a dozen good-sized apples peel them and remove the core and boil them in a quart of water with two tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs add the juice of a lemon and flavor it with rather less than a quarter of an ounce of powdered cinnamon sweeten the soup with lump sugar previously having ripped six lumps on the outside of the lemon artichoke soup take a dozen large Jerusalem artichokes about as big as the fist or more to make up a similar quantity peel them and like potatoes throw them into cold water in order to prevent them turning color roll them in as little water as possible as they contain a good deal of water themselves though they are tender and become a pope taking care that they do not burn and therefore it is best to rub the saucepan at the bottom with a piece of butter now rub them through a wire sieve and add them to a pinch of milk in which a couple of bay leaves have been boiled add also two lumps of sugar and the little white pepper and salt serve the soup with fried or toasted bread this soup can be made much richer by the addition of either a quarter of a pinch of cream or a couple of years of eggs if yolks of eggs are added beat up the yolks separately and add the soup gradually very hot but not quite boiling otherwise the yolks will curdle aspargus soup take a good-sized bundle about 50 large heads of asparagus and after a thorough cleansing throw them into a sauce pan of boiling water that has been salted when the tops become tender train up the asparagus and throw it into cold water as by this means we retain the bright green color when cold cut off all the best part of the green into little pieces about a half an inch long then put the remainder of the asparagus the stock part into a saucepan with the few green onions and the few sprigs of parsley with about a quart of stock or water add a teaspoonful of pounded sugar and a very little grated nutmeg let this boil to the stalks become quite tender then rub the hole through a wire sieve and thicken the soup with a little white hook and color its a bright green with some spinach extract now add the little pieces cut up and let the whole simmer gently and serve fried or toasted bread with the soup nota bene spinach extracts it is very important in making all green vegetable soups that they should be of green color such as the one above mentioned green pea soup etc and that we get a good color and this is only to be obtained by means of spinach extract spinach extract can be made at home but it will be found to be far more economical to have a small bottle of green vegetable coloring always in the house these bottles can be obtained from all grocers at the cost of about 10 friends or one shilling each such a very small quantity goes such a long way that one bottle would probably last a family of six persons 12 months as we have said it can be made at home with the process though not difficult is troublesome it is made as follows a quantity of spinach has after being thoroughly washed to be pounded in a mortar until it becomes a pulp this pulp is then placed in a very strong coarse cloth and the cloth is twisted till the juice of the spinach is squeezed out through the cloth if the amount of force required is very considerable and this almost beyond the power of ordinary women cooks this juice must now be placed in a small animal saucepan and must be heated still becomes thick and pulping when it can be put by for use it will probably be found cheaper to buy spinach extract than to make it as a manual labor cannot compete with machinery barley soup take two tablespoonfuls of pearl barley and wash it in several water still the water ceases to be discolored put this in a saucepan with about two quarts of water two onions sliced up a few potatoes sliced very thin and about a salt spoonful of time let the whole boil gently for four or five hours till the barley is quite soft and eatable taking the soup very slightly with a little white who seasoned it with pepper and salt before serving the soup add a tablespoonful of chopped blanched parsley not a beanie when chopped parsley is added to any soup or sauce such as parsley and butter it is very important that the parsley be blanched to blanch parsley means to throw it for a few seconds into boiling water by this means a dull green becomes a bright green the best method to blanch parsley is to place it in a strainer and dip the strainer for a few seconds in a sauce pan of boiling water by comparing the color of the parsley that has been so treated with some it has not been blanched cooks will at once see the importance of the operation so far as appearances concerned beetroot soup this soup is better adapted to the German palate than the English as it contains both vinegar and sugar which are very characteristic of German cookery take two large beetroot and two good-sized onions and after peeling the beet roots boredom and minced them finely adding them of course to the water in which they were boiled are still better they can be boiled in some sort of stock add a very small quantity of corn flour to give a slight consistency to the soup as well as a little pinch of time next add two tablespoonfuls of vinegar more or less according to tastes a spoonful of brown sugar and a little pepper and salt bean soup or puree of red haricot beans put 1/4 of red haricot beans into soaked overnight and put a little piece of soda in the water to soften it the next morning put the beans on to boil in 3 quarts of water with some carrots celery and onion or the beans can be boiled in some stock made from these vegetables after the beans are tender from them in a mortar and then rub the hole through a wire sieve after first removing the carrots celery and onion add a teaspoonful of pounded sugar and about 2 ounces of butter fried or toasted bread should be served with the soup if the soup is light thin of course more water can be added bean soup or pray of white haricot beans proceed exactly as in the above recipe only substituting white haricot beans for red it is a great improvement to add a little boiling cream but of course this makes the soup much more expensive some cooks add a spoonful of blanched chopped parsley to this puree and Frenchmen generally flavoured soup with garlic bean soup green boil a court of ordinary broad beans in some stock or water with an onion carrots and celery remove the skins when the beans are tender and rub the beans through a wire sieve color the soup with a little spinach extracts vegetable calling sold in bottles add a little piece of butter a little powdered sugar pepper and salt the amount of stock or water must depend upon whether it is wished to have the puree thick or thin some purees are made as thick as bread sauce while some purses prefer the much thinner this is purely a matter of taste bean soup from French beans this is an admirer ball method of using a French beans or scarlet runners when they get too old to be boiled as a vegetable in the ordinary way take any quantity of French beans and boil them in some stock or water with an onion carrot or celery for about an hour taking care at starting to throw them into boiling water in order to preserve that color it is also saving of trouble to chop the beans slightly at starting that is take a bunch of beans in the left hand and cut them into pieces say 1/8 of an inch in thickness boil them till they are tender and then rub the hole through a wire sieve add a little butter pepper and salt and color the soup with spinach extract vegetable coloring sold in bottles serve toasters or fried bread with the puree which should be rather thick cabbage soup take a white cabbage and slice it up and throw it into some stock or water with some leeks and slices of turnip boil the hole till the vegetables are tender flavor with pepper and salt but this is sometimes called Cornish broth though in Cornwall a piece of needs or bones are generally boiled with the vegetables as no need of course is used too much water must not be added but only sufficient liquor must be served to make the vegetables thoroughly moist perhaps the consistency can best be described by saying that there should be equal quantities of vegetables and fluid carrot soup if you wish this soup to be of a good color you must only use the outside on red part of the carrots in which case a dozen large carrots will be required if economy is practiced half this quantity will be sufficient takes a half a dozen carrots a small head of celery and one onion and throw them into boiling water for a few minutes in order to preserve the color then drain the mop and place them in a saucepan with a couple of ounces of butter to prevent them sticking and burning and place the saucepan on a very slack fire and let them stew so that the steam can escape but take care they don't burn or get brown now add a quart or two quarts of stock or water and boil them till they are tender then rub the holes through a wire sieve add a little butter rounded sugar pepper and salt the amount of liquid added must entirely depend upon the size of the carrots it is better to add too little than too much but the consistency of the soup should be like ordinary pea-soup it does not do to have the soup watering if only the outside parts of cars are used and this red part is thrown as starting into boiling water to preserve its color the soup when mate dick has a very bright and handsome appearance and is suitable for occasions when a little extra hospitality is exercised the inside part of the carrots if not used for making the soup need not be wasted it can be used for making stock or served in a dish of mixed vegetables on some other occasion cauliflower soup take three or four small cauliflowers or two large ones soak them in salt and water and boil them in some water till they are nearly tender take them out and break the cauliflower so that you get two or three dozen little pieces out of the heart of the cauliflower somewhat resembling miniature bouquets put the rest of the cauliflower back into the water in which it was boiled with the exception of the green part of the leaves with an onion and some of the white part of a head of celery let all boil till the water has newly boiled Alain now rub all this through a wire sieve onions celery cauliflower and all add to a sufficient boiling milk to make the whole of the consistency of pea soup add a little butter pepper and salt throw in those little pieces of cauliflower that had been reserved a minute or two before serving the soup it is an improvement to world 2 or 3 bay leaves with the milk and also a very great improvement indeed to add a little boiling cream fried or toasted bread should be served with the soup end of section 4 recording by Charlotte Paris section 5 of castles vegetarian cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org rezo's vegetarian cookery by arthur game-playing chapter one part two soups recipes celery soup take half a dozen heads of celery or a smaller quantity if the heads of celery are very large throw away all the green part and cut up the celery into small pieces with one onion sliced and placed them in a frying pan or better still in an animal stew-pan and stood amidst a congrats enemy does not turn color now add sufficient water or stock and let it all boil till the celery becomes quite tender let it boil till it becomes a pulp and then rub the hole through a wire see next boil separately from 1 to 2 quarts of milk according to the quantity of celery pub and royal couple of Bailey's in the milk as soon as the milk boils add it to the celery soup labor the soup with pepper and salt serve fried or toasted bread with the soup bit as it is to say that all these white soups are greatly improved both been appearance and flavor by the addition of little cream cheese soup light-colored and dried cheese is necessary for this somewhat peculiar soup but the best cheese of all is undoubtedly Korea create half a pound of cheese and spread a layer of this at the bottom of the soup tureen cover this layer of cheese with some very thin slices of stale crumbs of bread then put another layer of cheese and another layer of bread till all the cheese is used up next take about two tablespoonfuls of brown goo melt this in a small saucepan and add two tablespoonfuls of chopped onion let the onion cook in the melted whoo over the fire and then add a quart of water and stir it all up till it boils adding pepper and salt and a few drops of Parisian essence burn sugar to give it a dark brown color now pour the boiling soup over the contents of the soup tureen and let it stand a few minutes so that the bread has time to soak and serve cherry soup like most soups that are either sweet or sour this is a German recipe put a piece of butter the size of a large egg into a saucepan the it melts then mix it with a tablespoonful of flour and stir smoothly till it is slightly browned as gradually 2 pints of water a pound black cherries picked and washed and a few cloves let this boil until the fruit is quite tender then press the hole through a sieve after straining add a little port wine is allowed but the soup will be very nice without this addition half a teaspoonful of the Colonel's launched and bruised a tablespoon full of sugar and a few whole cherries lettuce to boil again until the cherries are tender and pour all into a terrine over toast incipits sponge cakes or macaroons chestnut soup or puree of chestnuts take four dozen chestnuts and peel them this will be a very long process if we attempt to take all the skins while they are raw but in order to save time in trouble place the chestnuts in a stew pan with a couple of ounces of butter place them on a slack fire and occasionally give them a stir need them gradually though the husks come off without any difficulty having removed all the husks add sufficient stock or water to the chestnuts and let them world gently till they are tender then pump them in a mortar and rub them through a wire sieve add a very little brown goo if the soup is to be brown add a few drops of Parisian essence brown sugar or a little white whoo and a little cream if the soup is to be white and also a little pepper and salt sufficient butter to make the puree tested salt and a little powdered sugar cried and toasted bread should be served with the soup cottage soup try to onions a carrot and a turnip and a small head of celery cut up into small pieces in a frying pan with a little butter so they are slightly browned then put them in a saucepan with about two quarts of water and a tablespoon full of mixed savory herbs let this boil – the vegetables are quite tender and then taken the soup with two ounces of oats or prepared barley this must be mixed with cold water and made quite smooth before it is added to the soup wash a quarter of a pound of rice and borrowed this in the soup and when the rice is quite thundered the soup can be served some persons add a little sugar and dried powdered mint can be handed around with a soup like pea soup clear soup make a very strong stock by cutting up onions celery carrots and a little turnip and boiling them in some water they should boil for 2 or 3 hours add also a teaspoon full of mixed savory hurts to every court and color the stock with a few drops of Parisian essence strain it off and if it is not bright clear it with some white of egg in the ordinary way take only sufficient corn flour to make the soup nests in on watering but do not make a thick the tablespoon full of mushroom ketchup can be added to every corns coconut soup break open and good sized corn nuts and great sufficient of the white part till it weighs half a pound oil this in some stock and after it has boiled for about an hour strain it off only a small quantity of stock must be used and the coconut should be pressed and squeezed so as to extract all the goodness add a little pepper and salt and about half a grated nutmeg next boil separately 3 points of milk and add this to the strained soup taken the soup with some brown rice and serve of course a little cream would be a great improvement served with roasted or fried bread and dive soup or puree take half a dozen endive that are white in the center and wash them very thoroughly in salt and water as they are apt to contain insects next throw them into boiling water and let them boil for a quarter of an hour then take them out and throw them into cold water next take them out to cold water and squeeze them in a cloth so as to extract all the moister then cut off the root of each and I've chopped up all the white leaves and place them in a stew pan with about two ounces of butter add half a grated nutmeg a brimming teaspoon full of powdered white sugar and a little pepper and salt stir them over the fire with a wooden spoon and take care they don't burn or turn color next add sufficient milk to moisten them and let them simmer gently till they are tender then rub the hole through a wire sieve add a little piece of butter and served with fried or toasted bread fruit soup fruit soup can be made from rhubarb vegetable marrow cucumber gourd or pumpkin they may be all mixed with a little cream milk or butter and from a nice dish that is both healthful and delicate green pea soup sea pea green pea soup dried sea B hair soup imitation take one large carrots a small head of celery one good sized onion and have a small turnip roll these in a quart of water till they are tender rub the hole through a wire sieve and thicken the soup with some Brown who till it is as thick as good cream next add the brimming salt spoonful of aromatic flavoring herbs these hurts are sold in bottles by all grocers and the name of herbaceous mixture flavor the soup with cayenne pepper a glass of port wine port wine racks will do dissolve it in a small dessert spoon full of red currant jelly and add the juice of half a lemon not a beanie and romantic flavoring herbs are exceedingly useful in cooking it is cheaper to buy them ready-made under the name of herbaceous mixture they can however be made at home as follows take 2 ounces of white peppercorns two ounces of cloves 1 ounce of marjoram 1 ounce of sweet basil and 1 – Clementine one ounce of powdered nutmeg one ounce of garlic nice and half an ounce of trite bay leaves the herbs must be wrapped up in paper one or two little paper bags one inside the other is best and tried very slowly in the oven until they are brittle they must then be pounded in a mortar mixed with the spices and then whoa saved it through a fine hair sieve and put by in a stoppered bottle who use hodge podge cut up some celery onion carrot turnip and leeks into small pieces and fry them for few minutes in about two ounces of butter in a frying pan very gently taking care that they do not in the least degree turn color previous to this wash and boil about a quarter of a pound of pearl barley for four or five hours when the barley is tender or nearly tender add the contents of the frying pan let it all boil till the vegetables are tender and about half an hour before the soup is sent to table throwing while the soup is boiling half pints of fresh green peas those known as marrow fats are bests and about five minutes before sending the soup to Table throw in a spoonful in the proportion of a dessert spoonful to every part of chopped launched parsley that is parsley that has been thrown into boiling water before this chopped color the soup green with a little spinach extract vegetable coloring sold in bottles by all crossers the thickness of the soup can be removed by the addition of a small quantity of white whole giardiniera sue cut up into thin strips some carrot turnip and salary' add a dozen or more small button onions similar to those used for pickling and also a few hearts of lettuces cut up pine as well as a few fresh tarragon leaves cut into strips as thin a small strain Simar these gently in some clear soup see clear soup till tender add a lump of sugar and Suri Mota beanie the tarragon should not be thrown until the last minutes Julian's soup this soup is exactly similar to the previous one the only exception being that all the vegetables are first stood very gently till they are tender in a little butter care should be taken that the vegetables do not turn colour leek soup take half a dozen or more buying large sneaks and doctor trimming off the green part throw them into boiling water for five minutes then drain them up and dry them cut them into pieces about half an inch long and stir them gently in a little butter till they are tender add three points of milk and that two bay leaves oil in the milk flavor with pepper and salt and add a suspicion of grated nutmeg taken the soup with a little white hole and take the crust of a French roll cut this up into small pieces or wings the rings can be made by simply scooping out the crumb and cutting the roll across when the leaves have boiled in the milk that they are quite tender pour the soup over the crusts placed at the bottom of the soup tureen some cooks are launched parsley of course Queen would be a great improvement lentil soup take a breakfast cup full of green lentils and put them to soak in cold water overnight in the morning throw away any floating on the top drain the lentils and put them in a stew pan or saucepan with some stock or water and add two onions two carrots a turnip a bunch of parsley a small teaspoon full of savory herbs and a small head of celery if you have no salary add half a teaspoon full of used celery seed you can also add a crust of stale bread let the whole boil and it will be found that occasionally a dark film will rise to the surface this must be skimmed off the soup must boiled for about four hours or at any rate still the lentils are thoroughly soaked then strain the soup through a wire sieve and rub the whole of the contents through the wire sieve with the soup this requires both time and patience after the wall has been wrapped through the sieve the soup must be boiled up and if made from green lentils it can be colored green with some spinach extract vegetable coloring sold in bottles if made from Egyptian red lentils the soup can be colored with a few drops of provision essence brown sugar in warming up this soup after the lentils have been rubbed through a sieve it should be borne in mind that the lentil powder has a tendency to settle and consequently the saucepan must be constantly stirred to prevent it burning in serving the soup at table the contents of the soup tureen should be stirred with soup ladle before each help lentil puree and a soubise this isreally lentil soup made us above rather thick to which has been added a puree of onions made as follows slice up safe four large onions and fry them in a little butter then borrow them in some of the broth of the suit so they are tender rub them through a wire sieve and add them to the soup macaroni sooo clear take some macaroni and break it up into pieces about two inches long boil them till they're tender in some salted water drain the mouth and add them to some clear soup see clear soup macaroni soup thick taken onion carrots a small head of celery and a very small quantity of turnip cut them up and boil them in a very small quantity of water for about an hour then rub the hole through a wire sieve add a quart or more milk throwing the macaroni after breaking it up into pieces two inches long and let the macaroni simmer and this still it is perfectly tender the soup should be thickened with a very little white hole a bay leaf can be boiled in the soup a small quantity of cream is a great improvement fry it on toasted bread should be served with its milk soup milk soup as it is sometimes called in Germany very much resembles English custard it is made by putting a quart of milk on the fire and sickening it with two yolks of eggs and little flour and sweetening it with sugar the soup is flavored with either vanilla lemon laurel leaves pounded almonds cinnamon chocolate etc as a soup however it is not suited to the English balanced mock turtle imitation taken onion carrots small head of celery and some turnip and boiled until they are tender in some stock the water in which some rice even boiled is very well-suited for the purpose add also to every part agreement tip tablespoon full of mixed savory herbs rub the wool through a wire sieve thicken it with brown goo till it is a stick scream add a few drops of Parisian essence sodium bottles by all closers to give it a dark colour add a wineglassful of cherry on Madeira or as the use of wine be objected to the juice of a hard lemon flavor the soup with a little cayenne pepper and serve some x-force meatballs in it's about the size of small marbles mallika Tony soup take 4 large onions cut them up and fry them brown with a little butter in a frying pan with the carrot cut up into small pieces add to this a quart of stock on water and boil still good vegetables and onions are tender then rub the hole through a wire sieve and add a brimming teaspoon full of captain White's curry paste and a dessert spoon full of curry powder previously mixed smooth in a little cold water taken the soup with a little brown cool some persons would consider the soup to HUD's if so let's curry powder can be used or more water added if you have no curry paste cut up a sour apple and add it to the vegetables in the frying pan if you have no sour apples a few green gooseberries are a very good substitute boiled rice should be served on a separate dish with this soup and should not be boiled in the soup at starting end of section 5 section 6 of cassis vegetarian cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org classes vegetarian cookery by Arthur J Payne chapter 1 soups recipes 1/3 onion soup cut up half a dozen onions and throw them for a few minutes into boiling water this takes off the rawness train off the onions and chop them up and boil them till they are tender in some milk that has been seasoned with pepper and salt and a pinch of savory herbs take a small quantity of celery carrot and turnip or carrot and turnip and a little bruised celery seed and boiled – they are tender in a very little water rub through a wire sieve and add the pulp to the soup this tube can be second with right hook ground rice or 1/2 X beaten up the soup must be added to the eggs gradually until curdle onion soup brown take an onion carrot celery and turnip and let them boil till quite tender in some water or stock in the meantime slice of half a dozen large onions and fry them brown in a little butter in a frying pan taking care that the onions are brown and not turns black add the contents of the frying pan to the vegetables and stock and after it has boiled some time till the onions are tender rub the hole through a wire sieve taken with a little brown whoo adding of course pepper and salt to taste oxtail soup imitation slice off the outside red part of two or three large carrots and cut them up into small dice not bigger than a quarter of an inch square cut up also into similar size a young turnip and the white hard part of a head of celery fry these very gently in a little butter taking care that the vegetables do not turn color make some soup exactly in every respect similar to that described in imitation mock turtle throw in these fried vegetables and let the soup simmer gently by the side of the fire in order for it to throw up its butter which should be skimmed off in flavoring the soup add only half the quantity of wine or lemon juice that you would use were you making mock turtle Palestine soup see artichoke soup parsnip soup prepare half a dozen parsnips and broil them with an onion and half a head of celery in some stock till they are quite tender then rub the hole through a wire sieve oil it up again and serve sufficient parsnips must be boiled to make the soup as thick as pea soup so the quantity of stock must be regulated accordingly this soup is generally rather sweets owing to the parsnips and the next truck the quantity of salt must be added in consequence as well as pepper in Belgium and Germany the sweetness is corrected by the addition of vinegar this of course is a matter of taste pear soup pear core or unsliced six or eight large pears put them into a stew pan with the penny roll cut into thin slices a dozen cloves and three pints of water let them simmer until they are quite tender then pass them through a coarse sieve and return the pureed to the saucepan with two ounces of sugar the strain juice of a fresh lemon and half a tumble flow of light wine let the soup boil five or ten minutes when it will be ready for serving send some sponge cake to table with this dish pea soup from split right piece take a pint of split peas and put them in soaked overnight in some cold water and throw away those that float as this shows that there is a hole in them which would be no dewy take two onions a carrot a small head of celery and boil them with the peas in from three pints to two quarts of water till they are quite tender this will be from four to five hours when the peas are old and stale even longer time should be allowed then hook the hole through a wire sieve put the soup back into the saucepan and stir it while make it hot or at Auburn in ordinary cookery pea soup is invariably made from some kind of greasy stock more especially the water in which pickled pork has been boiled in the present instance we have no kind of fat to contract the natural dryness of the pea flour you must start for ads before sending to Table two or three ounces of butter it will be found best to dissolve the butter in the sauce pan before adding the soup to be warmed up as it is then much less likely to stick to the bottom of the saucepan and urn fried or toasted bread should be served the soup separately as well as dried and powdered means the general mistake people make is they do not have sufficient means pea soup from dried green peas proceed as in the above the recipe and every respect substituting dried green peas for ordinary yellow split peas paratus of green by adding a large handful of spinach before it is rubbed through the wire sieve or add a small quantity of spinach extra vegetable coloring sold by grocers and bottles try to mint and fried or toasted bread should be served with the soup as with the other pea soup green fresh take half a pack of young piece shell them and throw the peas into cold water put all the shells into a quart or more of stock or water Putin also a handful of spinach if possible a few sprigs of parsley a dozen fresh mint leaves and half a dozen small fresh green onions we all these for an hour or rather more and then rub the hole through a wire see if you can't drop all the shells through but you will be able to rub a great part through that which is left in the sieve beam only strings now put on the soups boil again and as soon as it boils throwing the piece as soon as cities are tender about twenty minutes the soup is finished and can be sent to table if it's a soup pieces in a little white who can be added to thicken it if all the bad color or if you could not get any spinach add some spinach extract vegetable coloring sold by all closers only take care not to add too much and make the soup look like green paints potato soup potato soup is a very good method of using up the remains of cold boiled potatoes slice up a large onion and fry it without letting it turn color with a little butter add a little water or stock to the frying pan and at the onion boil till it's tender boil a quad or more of milk separately with that couple of bay leaves rub the onion with the cold potatoes through a wire sieve and add it to the milk you can moisten the potatoes in the sieve with the milk when you have rubbed enough to make the soup stick enough let us boil up and add to every part assault spoonful of time and the brimming teaspoon full of chopped blanched parsley this soup should be rather thicker than most thick soups when potatoes first coming to season and especially when you have new potatoes from your own garden it will often be found that mixed with ordinary ones there are many potatoes no bigger than a toy model and which are too small to be boiled and sent to table as an ordinary dish of new potatoes reserved all these little dwarf potatoes wash them and throw them for five or ten minutes into boiling water drain them off and throw them into the potato soup bowl of course they must boil in the soup too they are tender a little cream is a great improvement to the soup and right mince can be served with it but is not absolutely necessary pumpkin soup take half or a quarter of a moderate-sized pumpkin tear it remove the seeds and cut the pumpkin into thin slices put these into a stew bang with as much water or milk as will cover them and boil gently until they are reduced to a pulp rub this through a fine sieve mix with it a little salt and a piece of butter the size of an egg and stir it over the fire until it boils then it with some boiling milk which has been sweetened and flavoured with lemon rind cinnamon or orange flower water it should be of the consistency of thick cream with toasted bread cut into the size of dice at the bottom of the soup tureen moist him the bread dice with a small quantity of liqueur let him soak a little while then pour the rest of the soup over them and serve very hot all risk to fresh experts only in the terrine and poured the soup in over them at the last moment the liqueur ought to have ceased from boiling for a minute or two before this poured over the eggs rhubarb soup this is a sweet soup and is simply juice from stew true barb sweetened and flavoured with lemon peel and added either to cream or beaten up yolks of eggs and a little white wine it is rarely met with in this country rice soup take a quarter of a pound rice and wash it in several waters till the water ceases to be discolored take an onion the white part of a head of celery and the turnip and cut them up and fry them in a little butter add a quart of stock or water and boil these vegetables until they are tender and then rub them through a wire sieve boil the rice in this soup till it's tender flavor with pepper and salt and a little milk boil separately and serve grated Parmesan cheese with the soup rice soup olive oil take half a pound of rice and wash it thoroughly in several waters till the water ceases to be discolored roll this rice in some stock that has been strongly favoured with onion carrots and celery and strained off when the rice is tender rub it through a wire sieve then add some boiling milk in which two or three bay leaves have been boiled and half a pint of cream till the soup is a proper consistency serve some egg force meatballs with the soup sorrel soup take some sorrow and wash it very slowly like spinach it requires a great deal of cleansing drain it off and place the Solow in the stew pan and keep stirring it with a wooden spoon when it has dissolved and boiled for two or three minutes let it drain on the sieve till the water has run off next cut up a large onion and fry it in a little butter who do not brown the onion add a tablespoonful of flour to every two ounces of butter used also a teaspoon full of sugar a little grated nutmeg also a little pepper and salt add the sorrel to this with a small quantity of stock or water then rub the hole through a wire sieve and serve in some parts of the continent vinegar is added but it is not adapted to English tastes sage to take two ounces of sage and having washed it very thoroughly put it on to boil in a quart of stock strongly flavoured with onion celery and carrots but which has been strained off this edge must boil until it becomes quite transparent and tender flavored soup with a little pepper and salt a quarter of a nutmeg created about half a teaspoon full of powdered sugar and a teaspoon full of lemon juice from a hard lemon sea kale soup this makes a very delicious soup but it is somewhat rare take a bundle of sea kale the whiter the better but throw it into boiling water and let it boil for a few minutes then take it out and drain it cut it up into small pieces and place it in a stew pan with about two ounces of butter add a little pepper and salt and grated nutmeg stir it up until the butter is thoroughly melted but do not let it turn color in the slightest degree add some milk and that it's similary gently for about half an hour rub the hole through a wire sieve and add a small quantity of cream served with roasted or fried bread Scotch broth take two or three ounces of pearl barley wash it and throw it into boiling water and let it boil for five or ten minutes then drain it off and throw away the water this is the only way to get pearl barley perfectly clean then put on the barley in some stock or water and let it boil for four hours to the descender then add to it every kind of vegetable that is in season such as onion celery carrots turn it peas French beans cut up into small pieces hearts of lettuces cut up flavor with pepper and salt and serve together if possible add leeks to this soup instead of onion and just before serving the soup throwing a brimming dessert spoonful of chopped blanched parsley to every quart of soup a pinch of time can also be added spinach soup wash some young freshly gathered spinach cut it up with the lettuce and if possible a few leaves of sorrow and throw them into boiling water let them boil for five minutes drain them off and throw them into cold water in order to keep their color next take them out of the water and squeeze all the moisture from them then melt two ounces of butter in a steel pan and add two tablespoonfuls of flour when this is thoroughly mixed together and begins to Frizzle as the spinach lettuce etc and stir them round and round in the stew pan till all is well mixed together then add sufficient water of vegetable stock to moisten the vegetables add also a pinch of time and let it boil when it has boiled for about 20 minutes add a quart of milk that has been boiled separately flavored with pepper and salt and serve tapioca soup clear tapioca soup is made by thickening some ordinary clear soup see clear soup with tapioca allowing about two ounces of tapioca to every court the tapioca should be put into the soup when it is cold and it is then far less likely to get lumpy tapioca can also be boiled in a little strongly flavored stock that has not been colored and then add some boiling milk tapioca should be allowed to simmer for an hour and a half of course a little cream is a great improvement when the soup is made with milk tomato soup this is a very delicate soup and then never should be to try and retain the flavor of the tomato slice up an onion or better still two shallots and fry them in a little butter too which can be added a broken up dried bay leaf a salt spoonful of thyme and a very small quantity of grated nutmeg fry these in a little butter so the onion begins to turn color and then add a dozen ripe tomatoes from which the tips have been squeezed moistened with a very little stock on water and let them chill till they're tender then rub the hole through a Warren see the consistency should be that of pea soup add a little butter to stop the soup and flavor with pepper and salt turnip soup cut up some young turnips into small pieces and throw them into boiling water let them boil for a few minutes take them out and strain them and put them into a stew pan with about two ounces of fresh butter add a little salt and sugar let them stew in the butter taking great care that they don't turn color till they become soft then add sufficient boiling water to moisten them so that when rubbed through a wire sieve the soup will be of the consistency of pea soup serve fried or toasted bread the soup vegetable marrows soup take a large vegetable Merrill peel it cut it open remove all the pips and place it in a stew pan with about two ounces of fresh butter add the brimming teaspoon full of powdered sugar a little grated nutmeg and pepper and salt keep turning the pieces of vegetable marrow over in the butter taking care that they do not at all turn color have to find these pieces gently for five or ten minutes add some boiling milk and let the whole simmer gently till it can be rubbed through a wire sieve care must be taken not to get the soup too thin as the vegetable marrow itself contains a large quantity of water seasoned with pepper and salt and serve fried or toasted bread with soup vegetable soup see jodean Havasu vermicelli soup take a quarter of a pound of a Miceli and break it up into small pieces throw it into boiling water and let it boil for five minutes to get rid of the dirt and Florrie taste then throw it immediately into about a quart of clear soup the vermicelli must be taken from the boiling water and throw into the boiling soup at once if you were to boil the vermicelli drain it off and put it by to add to the soup you would find it would stick together in one month and be spoiled firm geli suit whites the vermicelli must be thrown into white soup instead of clear soup see white soup white soup just as an ordinary white soup the secret of success is to have some strongly reduced stock so in vegetarian white soup it is essential that we should have a small quantity of liquid strongly impregnated with the flavor of vegetables for this purpose place an onion the white part of a head of celery and the slice of turnip in a stew pan with a little butter and fry them so they are tender without becoming brown now add sufficient water to enable you to boil them and let the water boil away to a very little is left now rub this through a wire sieve and add it to a quart of milk in which a couple of bay leaves have been bored thicken the soup with a little white hole add a suspicion of nutmeg and also if possible a little cream flavor with pepper and salt serve fried or toasted bread with soup and of section 6 section 7 of Cassell's vegetarian cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Betty bee Cassell's vegetarian cookery by Arthur gay Paine chapter 2 sauces part 1 sauce allemande take a pint of butter sauce sea butter sauce and add to it for yolks of eggs in order to do this you must beat up the yolks separately in a basin and add the hot butter sauce gradually otherwise the yolks of eggs will curdle and the sauce will be spoiled in fact it must be treated exactly like a custard and in warming up the sauce it is often a good plan if you have no memory to put the sauce in a jug and place the jug in a sauce pan of boiling the sauce should be flavored with a little essence of mushroom if possible essence of mushroom can be made from the trimmings of mushrooms but mushroom ketchup must not be used on account of the color essence of mushroom can be made by placing the trimmings of mushrooms in a saucepan stewing them gently and extracting the flavor the large black mushrooms however are not suited in addition to this essence of mushroom a little lemon juice allowing the juice of half a lemon to every pint should be added to the sauce as well as a slight suspicion of nutmeg a pint of sauce requiring about a dozen grates of a nutmeg a little cream is a great improvement to this sauce but is not absolutely necessary the sauce should be perfectly smooth should it therefore contain any lumps which is not unfrequently the case in butter sauce passed the sauce through a sieve with a wooden spoon and then put it by in a bad Murray or warm it up in a jug as directed almond sauce this is suitable for puddings the simplest way of making it is to make say half a pint of butter sauce or cheaper thick and half a pint of milk with a little cornflour sweeten it with white sugar and then add a few drops of essence of almonds about a dozen drops will be sufficient if the essence is strong but essence of almonds varies greatly in strength the sauce can be colored pink with a few drops of cochineal almond sauce clear thickened half a pint of water with a little cornflour sweeten it with white sugar add a dozen drops of essence of almonds and a few drops of cochineal to color it pink the sauce is very suitable to pour over custard puddings made in a basin or cup and turned out on to a dish it is also very cheap apple sauce peel say a dozen apples cut them into quarters and be very careful in removing all the core as many a child is choked through carelessness in this respect stir the apples in a little water till they become a pulp placing with them half a dozen cloves and half a dozen strips of the yellow part only of the outside of the rind of a fresh lemon of the size and thickness of the thumbnail sweetened with brown sugar that known as Puerto Rico being the most economical had a small piece of butter before serving arrowroot sauce thicken half a pint of water with about a dessert spoonful of arrowroot and sweetened it with white sugar the sauce can be flavoured by rubbing a few lumps of sugar on the outside of a lemon or with a few drops of essence of vanilla or with the addition of a little sherry or spirit the best spirit-being rum this sauce can of course be colored pink with cochineal artichoke sauce proceed exactly as if you were making artichoke soup only make the puree thicker by using less liquid a simple artichoke sauce can be made by boiling down a few Jerusalem artichokes to a pulp rubbing them through a wire sieve and flavoring with pepper and salt asparagus sauce boil a bundle of asparagus and rub all the green tender part through a wire sieve till it is a thick pulp flavor with a little pepper and salt add a small piece of butter and a little spinach extract vegetable coloring sold in bottles in order to give it a good colour bread sauce take some dry crumb of bread and rub through a wire sieve the simplest plan is to turn the wire sieve upside down on a large sheet of paper the bread must be stale and stale pieces can be put by for this purpose next take say a pint of milk and let it boil then throw in the breadcrumbs and let them boil in the milk this is the secret of good bread sauce and a dozen peppercorns and place a whole onion in the saucepan containing the bread and milk and place the saucepan beside the fire in order to allow the bread crumbs to swell it will be found that though at starting the bread sauce was quite thin and milky yet after a time it becomes thick take out the onion add a little piece of butter stir it up and serve a little cream is a great improvement but not absolutely necessary Ceri this sauce though very simple requires care many persons will probably recollect having met with bread sauce which in appearance resembled a poultice too much to be agreeable either to the palate or the eye butter sauce this is the most important of all the sauces with which we have to deal the great mistake made by the vast majority of women cooks is that they will use milk they thicken a pint of milk with a little butter and flour and then call it melted butter and as a rule sent a table enough for 20 persons when only two or three are darning as butter sauce will be served with a majority of vegetables we would call the attention of vegetarians to the fact that as a rule ordinary cookery books take for granted that vegetables will be served with the meat when therefore vegetables are served separately and are intended to be eaten with bread as of course by themselves some alteration must be made in the method of serving them again vegetarians should bear in mind that except in cases where poverty necessitates rigid economy a certain amount of butter may be considered almost a necessity should the meal be wished to be both wholesome and nourishing franca telly who was chef de cuisine to the Earl of Chesterfield and was also chief cook to the Queen and chef at the Reform club and afterwards manager of the Freemasons tavern in writing on this subject observes butter sauce or as it is more absurdly called melted butter is the foundation of the whole of the following sauces and requires very great care in its preparation those simple it is nevertheless a very useful and agreeable sauce when properly made so far from this being usually the case it is – generally left to assistants to prepare as an insignificant matter the result is therefore seldom satisfactory when a large quantity of butter sauce is required put four ounces of fresh butter into a middle-sized stew pan with some grated nutmeg and mignonette pepper these add four ounces of sifted flour knead the whole well together and moisten with a pint of cold spring water stir the sauce on the fire till it boils and after having kept it gently boiling for 20 minutes observing that it be not thicker than the consistency of common white sauce proceed to mix in one pound and a half of sweet fresh butter taking care to stir the sauce quickly the whole time of the operation should it appear to turn oily add now and then a spoonful of cold spring water finished with the juice of half a lemon and salt to palate then pass the sauce through a Tammy into a large band Marie for use we accorded the recipe of the late M franca tele in full as we believe it is necessary to refer to some very great authority in order to knock out the prejudice from the minds of many who think that they not only can themselves cook but teach others but who are bound in the chains of prejudice and tradition which too often in the most simple recipes lead them to follow in the footsteps of their grandmothers real butter sauce can be made as follows on a small scale take a claret glass of water and about a small teaspoon full of flour mixed with rather more than the same quantity of butter and mix this in the water over the fire till it is of the consistency of very thin gruel if it is thicker than this add a little more water now take any quantity of butter and gradually dissolve as much as you can in this thin gruel adding say half an ounce at a time till the sauce becomes a rich oily compound after time if you add too much butter the sauce will curdle and turn oily as described by frank gotelli of course in everyday life it is not necessary to have the butter sauce so rich still it is simply ridiculous to thicken a pint of milk or a pint of water with a little butter and flour and then call it butter sauce or melted butter suppose we have a large white cabbage like those met within the West of England and we are going to make a meal of in conjunction with plenty of bread suppose the cabbage is sufficiently large for six persons surely half a pound of butter is not an excessive quantity to use in making butter sauce for the purpose yet prejudice is such that if we use half a pound of butter for the butter sauce housekeepers consider it extravagant on the other hand if the butter were placed on the table and the six persons helped themselves and ate bread and butter with the cabbage and finish the half pound it would not be considered extravagant of course this is simply prejudice a simple way of making melted butter is as follows take half a pint of cold water put it in a saucepan and add sufficient white Roux or butter and flour mixed till it is of the consistency of thin gruel now gradually dissolve in this adding a little piece at a time as much butter as you can afford and a suspicion of nutmeg a little pepper in salt and a few drops of lemon juice from a fresh lemon if you have one in use butter melted or oil butter melted butter properly speaking is rarely met with in this country but it is a common everyday sauce on the continent it is simply what it says a piece of butter is placed in a little sauce boat and placed in the oven till the butter runs to oil and then sent a table with all kinds of fish with which in our present work we have nothing to do but it is also sent to table with all kinds of vegetables such as French artichokes etc sometimes a spoonful of french capers is added to the oil butter butter black or beurre noir take two ounces of butter and dissolve it in a frying pan and let it Frizzle till the butter turns a brown color then add a tablespoon full of French vinegar a teaspoon full of chopped capers a teaspoon full of Harvey sauce and a teaspoon full of mushroom ketchup let it remain on the fire till the acidity of the vinegar is removed by evaporation this is a very delicious sauce and can be served with Jerusalem artichokes boiled home fried eggs caper sauce make some butter sauce and to every half pint of sauce and a dessert spoonful of chopped French capers if the sauce is liked sharp add some of the vinegar from the bottle of capers carrot sauce proceed exactly as in carrot soup using less liquid cauliflower sauce proceed exactly as in cauliflower soup using less liquid celery sauce proceed exactly as in cell we soup only using less liquid the thicker the sauce is the better cherry sauce take a quarter of a pound of dry cherries and put them into a small stoop and with a dessert spoon full of black currant jelly a small stick of cinnamon with half a dozen cloves and add rather less than half a pint of water and let the whole simmer gently for about 10 minutes when you must take out the spices and send the rest to table and B if wine is not objected to in cooking it is a very good plan to add Klara instead of water chestnut sauce proceed as in making chestnut soup using as little liquid as possible so as to make the sauce thick cinnamon sauce the simplest way of making cinnamon sauce is to sweeten some butter sauce with some white sugar and then add a few drops of essence of cinnamon the sauce can be colored pink with a little cochineal a little wine is an improvement the sauce can also be made by breaking up and boiling a stick of cinnamon in some water and then using the water to make some butter sauce coconut sauce grate the white part of a coconut very finely and boil it till tender in a very small quantity of water add about an equal quantity of white sugar as there was coconut mix in either the yolk of an egg or a tablespoon full of cream a little lemon juice is an improvement cucumber sauce take 2 or 3 small cucumbers peel them slice them and place them in a dish with a little salt which has the effect of extracting the water now drain the pieces off and strain them in a cloth to extract as much moisture as possible put them in a frying pan with a little butter fry them very gently till they begin to turn color then nip them through a wire sieve moisten the pulp with a little butter sauce add a little pepper salt and grated nutmeg and vinegar to taste currant sauce red put a couple of tablespoon Falls of red currant jelly into a small stooping with half a dozen cloves a small stick of cinnamon and the rind of an orange moisten with a little water or still better a little clearing strain it off and add the juice of the orange currant sauce black proceed exactly as in the above recipe substituting black currant jelly for red curry sauce take six large onions peel them cut them up into small pieces and fry them in a frying pan in about two ounces of butter as soon as the onions begin to change color take a small carrot and cut it up into little piece and a sour apple when the onions etc are fried a nice Brown add about a pint of vegetable stock or water and let the whole simmer till the vegetables are quite tender then add a teaspoonful of captain White's curry paste and a dessert spoonful of curry powder now rub the hole through a wire sieve and take care that all the vegetables go through it is rather troublesome but will we pay you as good curry sauce cannot be made without the curry sauce should be sufficiently thick owing to the vegetables being rubbed through the wire sieve should therefore the onions be small less water or stock had better be added curry sauce could be thickened with a little brown room but it takes away from the flavor of the curry a few bay leaves may be added to the sauce and served up whole in whatever is curried for instance if we have a dish of curried rice half a dozen or more bay leaves could be added to the sauce and served up with the rice there are many varieties of curry in India fresh mangoes take the part of our sour apples some persons add grated coconut to curry and it is well worth a trial although on the piano but the Indian curry cook mixes the curry fresh every day and uses coconut oil for the purpose in some parts of India it is customary to serve up whole chilies in the curry but this would be better adapted to a stomach suffering from the effects of brandy pani than to the simple taste of the vegetarian Dutch sauce this is very similar to a lemon sauce take half a pint of good butter sauce make it thoroughly hot add two yolks of eggs taking care that they do not curdle a little pepper and salt a suspicion of nutmeg and about a tablespoon full of tarragon vinegar some persons instead of using tarragon vinegar add a little lemon juice say the half of a fresh lemon to this quantity and half a dozen fresh tarragon leaves blanched that is dipped for a few seconds in boiling water and then chopped very fine the tarragon vinegar is much the simplest as it is very difficult to get fresh tarragon leaves unless one has a good garden or lives near Covent Garden Market Dutch sauce green proceed exactly as above and colour the sauce a bright green with a little spinach extract vegetable coloring sold in bottles by all grocers egg sauce take half a dozen eggs put them in a saucepan with sufficient cold water to cover them put them on the fire and let them boil for 10 minutes after the water boils take them out and put them into cold water and let them stand for 10 minutes when the shells can be removed then cut up the 6 hard-boiled eggs into little pieces add sufficient butter sauce to moisten them make the hole hot and serve and be in experienced cooks often think that hard-boiled eggs are bad when they are not going to they're often having a tinge of green colour around the outside of the yolk and – they're emitting a peculiar smell when the shells are first removed while hot all eggs contain a small quantity of sulfur added hydrogen fennel sauce blanch and chopped up sufficient fennel to call half a pint of butter sauce a bright green and a little pepper salt and lemon juice and serve end of section seven