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This is a little cookbook of vegetarian recipes, which were only slowly gaining popularity in England at the time of its publication in 1891. The recipes are all very clearly described, and any modern listener should be able to try them out if any of them strike their fancy. – Summary by Carolin
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section eight of Cassell's vegetarian cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by larry johnson city tennessee Cassell's vegetarian cookery by arthur gaye payne chapter two sauces part 2 german sweet sauce take a quarter of a pound of dried cherries a small salt spoonful of powdered cinnamon and a few strips of lemon peel and put them in a small saucepan with about a quarter of a pint of water or still better claret if wine is allowed and let them simmer on the fire gently for about a half an hour then rub the cherries through a wire sieve with the liquor of course the lemon peel and clothes will not rub through and add this to a quarter of a pound of stewed prunes this is a very popular sauce abroad ginger sauce the simplest way of making ginger sauce is to sweeten half a pint of butter sauce and then add a few drops of essence of ginger a richer ginger sauce can be made by taking two or three tablespoonfuls of preserved ginger and two or three tablespoonfuls of the syrup in which they are preserved rubbing this through a wire sieve adding about an equal quantity of butter sauce making the hole hot in a saucepan gooseberry sauce Pitkin and stew some green gooseberries just moistening the stupa Han with a little water to prevent them burning rub the hole through a hair sieve in order to avoid having any pips in the sauce sweeten with a little Demerara sugar as Puerto Rico would be too dark in color the sauce a bright green with a little spinach extract it is mistake to add cream to gooseberry sauce which is distinct all together from gooseberry fool in Germany vinegar is added to this sauce and it is served with meat horseradish sauce horseradish sauce is made properly speaking by mixing grated horseradish with cream vinegar sugar made mustard and a little pepper and salt a very simple method of making the sauce is to substitute tinned Swiss milk for the cream and sugar it is equally nice more economical and possesses this great advantage a few tens of Swiss milk can always be kept in a store cupboard where is there is considerable difficulties especially in all large towns and obtaining cream without giving 24 hour notice and the result even then is not always satisfactory horseradish sauce is very delicious and this thickness should be entirely dependent upon the amount of grated horseradish sticks of horseradish vary so much in size that we will say grade sufficient to fill a tea cup throw this in the sauce terrine mix a dessert spoonful of Swiss milk with a tablespoon full of vinegar and about two tablespoonfuls of milk and a teaspoon full of made mustard add this to the horseradish and if necessary sufficient milk to make the whole of the consistency of bread sauce as a sauce is very hot it is a rule it is best not to add too any pepper which can be easily added afterwards by those who like it Indian pickle sauce chopped up two or three tablespoonfuls of Indian pickles place them in a frying pan with a quarter of a pint of water and if the pickles are sour as well as hot let them simmer some little time so as to get rid of the vinegar by evaporation then thickened the whole with some brown Roux till the sauce is as thick as pea soup the vinegar should be got rid of as much as possible this is a very appetizing dish with boiled rice and Parmesan cheese Italian sauce this is an old-fashioned recipe taken from a book written in French and published more than 50 years ago put into a saucepan a little parsley a shallot some mushrooms and truffles chopped very finely with a piece of butter about the size of a walnut let all boil gently for half an hour at a spoonful of oil and serve matera Doulton sauce Metro Hotel sauce is simply a lump of butter mixed with some chopped parsley a little pepper and salt and lemon juice hot sauce is often called Metro Dotel when chopped blanched parsley and lemon juice is added to a little white sauce mango chutney sauce take a couple of tablespoons full of mango chutney moisten it with two or three tablespoonfuls of butter sauce rub the hole through a wire sieve and serve either hot or cold or the chutney can be simply chopped up fine and added to the butter sauce without rubbing through the wire sieve men a sauce this is the most delicious of all cold sauces it is composed entirely of raw yolk of egg and oil flavored with a dash of vinegar when made properly it should be the consistency of butter in summertime many women cooks labor under the delusion that it requires the addition of cream many sauces made as follows break an egg and separate the yolk from the white and place the yolk at the bottom of a large basin next take a bottle of oil which must be cool but bright if the oil is cloudy as it often is cold weather you cannot make the sauce nor can you if the oil has been kept in a warm place now proceed to let the oil drop drop by drop on the yolk of egg and with a silver fork or still better a wooden one beat the yolk of egg and oil quickly together continue to drop the oil taking care that only a few drops drop at a time especially it's starting and continue to beat the mixture lightly and quickly gradually the yolk of egg and oil will begin to get thick first of all like custard when this is the case a little more oil may be added at a time but never more than a teaspoon full as more oil is added and the beating continues the sauce gets thicker and thicker till it is nearly as thick as butter in summertime when it arrives at this stage no more oil should be added a little tarragon vinegar may be added at the finish or a little lemon juice this makes a sauce whiter in color one yolk of egg will take a tea cup full of oil it is best to add pepper and salt when the salad is mixed many sauces by far the best sauce for lettuce salad it will keep a day but should be kept in a cool place and the Bazin should be covered with a moist cloth men a sauce green make some mayonnaise sauces above and color it with some spinach coloring vegetable coloring sold in bottles buy all grocers mint sauce take plenty of fresh mint leaves has the secret of good mint sauce is to have plenty of mint chopped up sufficient mint to fill a tea cup put this at the bottom of a sauce terrine pour sufficient boiling water on the mint to thoroughly moisten it and add a tablespoon full of brown sugar which dissolves best when the water is hot press the mint with the tablespoon to extract the flavor let it stand till it is quite cold and then add three or four tablespoons full of malt vinegar stir it up and the sauce is ready the quantity of vinegar added is purely a matter of taste but a teaspoon of chopped mint floating in half a pint of vinegar is no more mint sauce than dipping a mutton shop in a quart of boiling water which would be soup in ordinary cookery mushroom sauce white mushroom sauce can be made from fresh mushrooms or tin mushrooms when made from fresh they must be small button mushrooms and not those that are black underneath they must be peeled cut small and have little lemon juice squeezed over them to prevent them from turning colour or they had still better be thrown into lemon juice and water they must now be fried in a frying pan with a small quantity of butter till they are tender and then add it to a little thickened milk or still better cream when made from tin mushrooms simply chop up the mushrooms reserving the liqueur then add a little cream and thicken with a little white roux a little pepper and salt should be added in both cases instead of using milk or cream you can use a small quantity of sauce alum and mushroom sauce brown proceed exactly as above with regard to the mushrooms both fresh and tinned only instead of adding milk cream or allemande sauce add a little stock or water and then thicken the sauce with a little brown Roux mushroom sauce puree mushroom sauce both white and brown is sometimes served as a puree it is simply either of the above sauces rubbed through a wire sieve mustard sauce make say half a pint of good butter sauce add this to a table spoon full of French mustard and a tablespoon full of English mustard stir this into the sauce make it hot and serve note French mustard is sold ready-made in jars and is flavored with tarragon capers Revie gut etc onion sauce take a half dozen large onions peel them and boil them in a little salted water till they are tender then take them out and chop them up fine and put them in a stew pan with a little milk thicken the sauce with a little butter and flour or a white roux and season with pepper and salt a very nice mild onion sauce is made by using Spanish onions onion sauce Brown slice up half a dozen good-sized onions put them in a frying pan and fry them in a little butter till they begin to get brown but be careful not to burn them and should there be a few black pieces in the frying pan remove them now chop up the onions not too finely and put them in a saucepan with a very little stock or water let them simmer until they are tender and then thicken the with a little brown roux and flavor with pepper and salt orange cream sauce for puddings take a large ripe orange and rub a dozen lumps of sugar on the outside of the rind and dissolve these in a small quantity of butter sauce and add the juice of the orange strained now add a little cream or half a pint of milk that has been boiled separately in which case the sauce will want thickening with a little white roux rubbing the sugar on the outside of the rind of the orange gives a very strong orange flavor indeed far more than the juice of almost any number of oranges would produce so care must be taken not to overdo it this is what the French cooks call the zest of orange parsley sauce blanch and chop up sufficient parsley to make a brimming tablespoon full and chopped add this to half a pint of butter sauce with a little pepper salt and lemon juice it is very important to blanch the parsley throw it into a little boiling water before chopping pineapple sauce take a pineapple peel it cut it up into little pieces on a dish taking care not to lose any of the juice place it in a saucepan with very little water just sufficient to cover the pineapple let it simmer gently until it is tender then add sufficient white sugar to make the liquid almost a syrup a teaspoon full of cornflour made smooth in a little cold water can be added but the sauce should be the consistency of syrup and the cornflour does away with a difficulty of making it too sickly the juice of half a lemon may be added and is perhaps an improvement plum sauce when made from ripe plums take say a pound and place them in a stew pan with a very little water and a quarter of a pound of sugar take out the stones and crack them throat the kernels into boiling water so that you can rub off the skin and add them to the sauce after you have rubbed the stewed plums through a wire sieve to make plum sauce from dried French plums proceed exactly as in making prune sauce si prune sauce boy fraid sauce take an onion a very small head of celery and a carrot and cut them into little pieces and put them into a frying pan with a little butter a salt spoonful of thyme one or two dried bay leaves and about a quarter of a grated nutmeg and two or three sprigs of parsley fry these until they turn a light brown color then add a little stock or water and two tablespoons of vinegar let this boil in the frying pan for about a half an hour till the liquid is reduced in quantity they can it with a little brown roux and rub through a wire sieve make it hot and serve if wine is allowed the addition of a little sherry is a great improvement to this sauce prune sauce take a quarter of pound of prunes put them in a stew pan with just sufficient water to cover them and let them stew put in one or two strips of lemon peel to stew with them add a teaspoon full of brown sugar about sufficient powdered cinnamon to cover a shilling and the juice of half a lemon when the prunes are quite tender take out the strip of lemon peel and stones rub the hole through a wire sieve and serve radish sauce take a few bunches of radishes and grade them and mix this grated radish with a little oil vinegar pepper and salt you can color the sauce red by adding a little beet root and make the sauce hot by adding a little grated horseradish this cold sauce is exceedingly nice with cheese these grated radishes are more digestible than radishes serve whole raspberry sauce this sauce is simply stewed raspberries rubbed through a wire sieve and sweetened some red currant juice should be added to give it a color it is very nice made hot and then added to one or two beaten up eggs and poured over any plain pudding such as boiled rice etc rectifier sauce add a few drops of ratafia to some sweetened arrowroot or some butter sauce the sauce can be colored pink with a few drops of coach Anil Ravi got sauce put a tablespoon full each of Harvey's sauce tarragon vinegar and chili vinegar into a small saucepan and let it boil until it is reduced to almost 1/2 in quantity in order to get rid of the acidity now add about half a pint of butter sauce and throw in a tablespoon of chopped blanched parsley Roberts sauce take a couple of onions cut them up into small pieces and fry them with about an ounce of butter in a frying pan drain off the butter and add a couple of tablespoon full of vinegar to the frying pan and let it simmer for 10 minutes or a quarter of an hour so as to get rid of the acidity of the vinegar now add a little stock or water stir it and thicken the sauce with a little brown roux add a dessert spoon full of fresh mustard in a little pepper and salt Sobeys sauce sauce soubise is simply a white onion sauce rubbed through a wire sieve in a little cream added it is more delicate than ordinary onion sauce and is often served in France with roast pheasant it owes its name to a famous French general sorrel sauce put about a quarter of fresh green sorrel leaves after being thoroughly washed into an enameled saucepan with a little fresh butter let the sorrel stew till is tender rub this through a wire sieve add a little powdered sugar and a little lemon juice a little cream may be added but is not absolutely essential a sweet sauce take 1/2 a pint of butter sauce and sweeten it with a little sugar it can be flavored by rubbing a little sugar on the outside of a lemon or with vanilla essence of almonds or any kind of sweet essence a little wine brandy are still better rum is a great improvement some persons add cream tarragon sauce blanch a dozen tarragon leaves chop them up and stew them in any kind of stew thickened with brown Roux tartar sauce take two or three tablespoonfuls of mayonnaise sauce and add this to a brimming teaspoon full of chopped blanched parsley as well as a piece of onion or shallot about as big as the top of the thumb down to the first joint chopped very fine any brimming teaspoon full of French mustard mix the whole well together a teaspoon of anchovy sauce would be a great improvement where anchovy sauce allowed in vegetarian cookery tomato sauce the great secret of tomato sauce is to taste nothing but the tomato take a dozen ripe tomatoes cut off the stalks and squeeze out the pips and put them in a stew pan with a little butter let them stew until they are tender and then rub the hole through a wire sieve this in our opinion is the best tomato sauce that can be made the only seasoning being a little pepper and salt this wholesome and delicious sauce can however be spoiled in a variety of ways by the addition of mace cloves shallots onions thyme etc it can also be very unwholesome by the addition of a quantity of vinegar truffle sauce this sauce is very expensive if made from whole fresh truffles but can be made more cheaply if you can obtain some truffle chips or pairings these must be stewed in a little stock thickened with brown roux and then rub to a wire sieve a little sherry being a great improvement if wine is allowed vanilla sauce add some essence of vanilla to some sweetened butter sauce white sauce white sauce is sometimes required for vegetables and sometimes for puddings in the former case of good flavored uncolored stock must be thickened with white roux and then have sufficient cream added to it to make the sauce a pure white when white sauce is wanted for puddings sufficient butter sauce must be sweetened and very slightly flavored with nutmeg or almond and then an equal quantity of cream added to it to make a pure white white sauce should not have any strong predominant flavor end of section 8 recording by Larry Johnson City Tennessee section nine of two sells vegetarian cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Betty bee Cassell's vegetarian cookery by Arthur gay Payne chapter 3 savory rice macaroni oatmeal etc rice probably all persons will admit that rice is a too much neglected form of food in England when we remember how small a quantity of rice weekly is found sufficient to keep alive millions and millions of our fellow creatures in the East it seems to be a matter of regret that rice as an article of food is not more used by the thousands and thousands of our fellow creatures in the East not in the ordinary acceptation of the term but east of temple bar rice is cheap nourishing easily cooked and equally easily digested yet that monster custom seems to step in and prevent the bulk of the poor availing themselves of this light and nourishing food solely for the reason that as their grandfathers and grandmothers did not eat rice before them they do not see any reason why they should like the Irishman who objected to have his feet washed on the same ground of the different kinds of rice Carolina is the best the largest and the most expensive Patna rice is almost as good the grains are long small and white and it is the best rice for curry madras rice is the cheapest rice pure and simple is the food most suited for hot climates and we're a natural indolence of disposition results in one's day's work of an ordinary Englishman being divided among 20 people as we move toward more temperate zones it will be found the universal custom to qualify it by mixing it with some other substance thus the rice is largely eaten in Italy it is almost invariably used in conjunction with Parmesan cheese rice contains no flesh forming properties whatever as it contains no nitrogen and with all due respect to vegetarians it will be found that as we received from the equator in advanced toward the poles our food must of necessity vary with the latitude and whereas we may start on a diet of rice we shall be forced sooner or later to depend upon a diet of pemmican or food of a similar nature rice to boil the best method of boiling rice is at any rate a much disputed point if not an open question there are as many ways almost of boiling rice as dressing a salad and each one thinks his own way the best we will mention a few of the most simple and we'll illustrate it by boiling a small quantity that can be contained in a teacup of course boiling rice is very much simplified if you want some rice water as well as rice itself rice water contains a great deal of nourishment a fact which is well illustrated by the well-known story of the black troops who served in India under Clive who at the siege of arcot told clive when they were short of provisions that the water in which the rice was boiled would be sufficient for them while the more substantial grain could be preserved for the European troops take a tea cup full of rice and wash the rice in several waters till the water ceases to be discolored now throw the rice into boiling water say a quart let the rice boil gently till it is tender strain off the rice and reserve the rice water for other purposes the time rice will take to boil treated this way would be probably about 20 minutes but this time would vary slightly with the quality and size of the rice many years ago we watched a black man boiling rice on board a piano bow the Mesa poor he proceeded as follows he boiled the rice for about ten minutes or perhaps a minute or two longer strained it off in a sieve and then washed the rice with cold water and then put the rice back in the stew pan to once more get hot and swell of course this rice was being boiled for curry and certainly the result was that each grain was beautifully separated from every other grain we do not think however that this method of boiling rice is customary on all the boats of the piano company of course this method of boiling rice was somewhat wasteful by far the most economical method of boiling rice is as follows and we would recommend it to all who are in the habit of practicing economy on the grounds of either duty or necessity wash thoroughly as before a tea cup full of rice and put it in a small stoop an or saucepan with two breakfasts cupfuls of water bring this to a boil and let it boil for 10 minutes and then remove the saucepan to the side of the fire and let the rice soak and swell for about 20 minutes after a little time you can put a cloth on the top of the saucepan to absorb the steam similar to the way you treat potatoes after having strained off the water in boiling rice we must remember that there are two ways in which rice is served one is as a meal in itself the other as an accompaniment to some other kind of food it will be found in Italy and Turkey and in the East generally where rice forms so to speak the staff of life that it is not cooked so soft and tender as it is in England where it is generally served with something else in fact each grain of rice may be said to resemble an Irish potato in as much as it has a heart in it in Ireland potatoes as a rule are not cooked so much as they are in most parts of England probably the reason of this is in most cases that experience has taught people that there is more stay in rice and potatoes when served in a state that English people would call under there's no doubt that the waste throughout the length and breadth of this prosperous land through overcooking is something appalling another very good method of boiling rice is the american-style take a good sized stew pan or saucepan that has a tight-fitting lid put a cloth over the saucepan after first pouring in say a pint of water pushed down the cloth keeping it tight so as to make a well but do not let the cloth reach the water wash the Rice's before and put on the lid tight of course with the cloth the lid will fit very tight indeed now put the saucepan on the fire and make the water boil continuously by these means you steam the rice till it is tender and lose none of the nourishment you can always learn from America risotto alla milanese take a tea cup full of rice wash it thoroughly and dry it chop up a small onion and put it in the bottom of a small stew pan and fry the onion to a light brown color now add the dry rice and stir this up with the onion and butter till the rice also is fried of a nice light brown color now add two breakfast cupfuls of stock or water and a pinch of powdered saffron about sufficient to cover a Threepenny piece let the rice boil for 10 or 11 minutes move the saucepan to the side of the fire and let it stand for 20 minutes or half an hour till it has absorbed all the stock or water now mix in a couple of tablespoons of grated Parmesan cheese flavor with a little pepper and salt and served the whole very hot rice with cabbage and cheese wash some rice and let it soak in some hot water with a cabbage sliced up for about an hour then strain it off and put the rice and cabbage in a stew pan with some butter a little pepper and salt and about a quarter of a grated nutmeg toss these about in the butter for 10 minutes or a quarter of an hour over the fire but do not let them turn color then add a small quantity of water or stock let it stew till it is tender and then serve it very hot with some grated cheese sprinkled over the top M be the end of cheese Rhine can be utilized with this dish rice with cheese wash some rice and then boil it for 10 or 11 minutes in some milk and let it stand till it is soaked up all the milk the proportion generally is as we have said before a tea cup full of rice 2 to breakfast cupfuls of milk but as we shall want the rice rather moist on the present occasion we must allow a little more milk now mix in some grated cheese and a little pepper and salt place the mixture in a pie dish and cover the top with grated cheese and place the pie dish in the oven and bake until the top is nicely brown and then serve some cooks had a good spoonful of made mustard to the mixture some persons preferred and some don't it is therefore best to serve some made mustard with the rice and cheese at table unless the mixture was fairly moist before it was put in the pie dish it would dry up in the oven and become uneatable rice curry boil a tikka full of well washed rice in two breakfasts cupfuls of water and let the rice absorb all the water put a cloth in the saucepan and stir up the rice occasionally with a fork till the grains become dry and separate easily the one from the other now mix it up with some curry sauce make the hole hot and send it to the table with a few whole bay leaves mixed in with the rice only sufficient curry sauce should be added to moisten the rice it must not be rice swimming in gravy or you can make a well in the middle of the boiled rice and pour the curry sauce into this rice borders casseroles casseroles or rice borders form a very handsome dish it consists of a large border made of rice the outside of which can be ornamented in the center of which can be filled with a method one ie a mixture of fruit or vegetables as you are probably aware grocers have in their shop windows small tins with copper labels on which the word is printed at one this tin contains a mixture of cut-up cooked vegetables these are very useful to have in the house as a nice dish can be served at a few moments notice mixed fruits are also sold in bottles under the name of method wanna fruits of course both vegetables and fruit can be prepared at home much cheaper from fresh fruit and vegetables but this requires time and forethought these mixtures are very much improved in appearance when served in a handsomely made rice border and as the border is eaten with the vegetables and fruit there's no want of economy in the recipe suppose we are going to make a rice border take a pound of rice and wash it carefully if we're going to fill it with fruit we must boil it in sweetened milk but if we are going to fill it with vegetables we must boil it in vegetable stock or water add as the case may be sufficient liquid to boil the rice till it is thoroughly tender and soft now place it in a large bowl and with a wooden spoon mash it till it becomes a sort of firm compact paste then take it out and roll it into the shape of a cannon ball and having done this flatten it till it becomes of the shape of the cheese's one meets with in Holland flat top and bottom with rounded edges you can now ornament the outside by making it resemble a fluted mould of jelly the best way of doing this is to cut a carrot in half and scoop out part of the inside with the cheese scoop so that the width of the part where it is scooped is about the same as the two flat sides make the outside of the rice perfectly smooth with the back of a wooden spoon butter the carrot mold to prevent it sticking and press this gently on the outside of the shape of rice till it resembles the outside of a column in Gothic architecture then place it in the oven and let it bake till it is firm and dry then scoop out the center and put it back for a short time if the border is going to be used for a massive duan of vegetables beat up a yoke of egg and paint the outside of the casserole with this and then it will make a nice golden brown color now get out of the oven and fill it accordingly it can be served hot or cold or it can be filled with the German salad seem acid wanna fruit Massud wanna vegetables salad German rice croquettes savory boil a tea cup full of rice in some stock or water about two breakfasts cupfuls till it is tender and until the rice has absorbed all the water or stock chop up a small onion very fine fry it till tender in a very little butter but do not let it brown add a small teaspoon full of mixed savory herbs a brimming teaspoon full of chopped parsley to the contents of the frying pan for two or three minutes and then add them to the rice mix it well together and let the rice dry in the oven till the mixture is capable of being rolled into balls now take 2 eggs separate the yolk from the white of one beat up the whole egg and one white thoroughly in a basin but do not beat it to a froth add the rice mixture to this mix it again very thoroughly and then roll it into balls about the size of a small walnut seasoning the mixture with sufficient pepper and salt roll these balls and flour in order to ensure the outside being dry and roll them backwards and forwards on the sieve in order to get rid of the superfluous flour make some very fine breadcrumbs from some stale bread next beat up the yolk of egg with about a dessert spoon full of warm water dip the rice balls into this and then cover them with the bread crumbs let them stand for an hour 2 for the bread crumbs to get dry and then fry them a light golden brown color in a little oil fried parsley can be served with them instead of bread crumbs you can use up broken vermicelli the bottom of a jar of vermicelli can sometimes be utilized this way this has a very pretty appearance the vermicelli browns quickly and the croquettes have the appearance of little balls covered in brown network rice savoury there are several ways of serving savory rice the rice can be boiled in some stock strongly flavored with onion and celery and when cooked sufficiently tender one or two eggs can be beaten up with it pepper and salt added and the mixture served with grated cheese rice can also be rendered savory by the addition of chopped mushrooms pepper and salt and a little butter and if a tin of mushrooms is used the liqueur and the tin should be added to the boiled rice but in every case the rice should be made to absorb the liquor in which it is boiled eggs can again be added as well as grated Parmesan cheese a cheap and quick way of making rice savoury is to mix it with a large tablespoon full of chutney make it hot with a little butter and add pepper cayenne if preferred with a little lemon juice rice can also be served as savory by boiling it in any of the sauces that may be termed savory and distinction to those that are sweet given in the chapter entitled sauces rice and eggs boils say half a pound of rice and let it absorb the water in which it is boiled take four hard-boiled eggs separate the yolks from the whites chop the whites very fine and add them to the rice with about a brimming teaspoon full of chopped blanched parsley and sufficient savory herbs to cover a sixpence put this in the saucepan and make it hot with a little butter and flavor with plenty of pepper and salt in the meantime beat the yellow hard boiled yolks to a yellow powder turn out the rice mixture when thoroughly hot into a vegetable dish and put the yellow powder either in the center or make a ring of the yellow powder around the edge of the rice and serve a little pile of fried parsley in the middle rice and tomato take half a dozen ripe tomatoes squeeze out the pips and put them in a tin in the oven with a little butter to bake base them occasionally with a little butter in the meantime boil half a pound of rice in a little stock or water only adding sufficient so that the rice can absorb the liquid when this is done and this will take about the same time as the tomatoes take to Bank pour all the liquid butter in the tin onto the rice and stir it well up with some pepper and salt put this on a dish and serve the tomatoes on the rice with the red unbroken side uppermost and of section 9 section 10 of castles vegetarian cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by jl baldwin castles vegetarian cookery by arthur de panne chapter 3 part 2 savory rice macaroni oatmeal etc macaroni macaroni macaroni is a preparation of pure wheat and flour it is cheaply made in Italy though a good deal is made in Geneva and Switzerland the best macaroni is made in the neighborhood of Naples the wheat that grows there ripens quickly under the pure blue sky and hot Sun and consequently the outside of the weed is browner while the inside of the wheat is whiter than that grown in England the weed is ground and sifted repeatedly it is generally sifted about five times and the pure snow white flour that falls from the last sifting is made into macaroni it is first mixed with water and made into a sort of dough the dough being needed in the truly Orthodox Eastern style by being trodden out with the feet it is then forced by a sort of rough machinery through holes partially baked during the process and then hung up to dry macaroni contains a great amount of nourishment and it is only made from the purest and finest flour it is the staple dish throughout Italy and in whatever former way it is cooked except as a sweet tomatoes and grated Parmesan cheese seemed bound to accompany it spaghetti spaghetti is a peculiar form of macaroni ordinary macaroni is made in the form of long tubes and when macaroni pudding is served in schools it is often irreverently nicknamed by the boys gas pipes spaghetti is not a tube but simply macaroni made in the shape of ordinary wax tapers which it resembles very much in a in Italy it is often customary to commence dinner with a dish of spaghetti and should the dinner consist as well of soup fish entree salad and sweet the spaghetti would be served before the soup takes a half a pound of spaghetti wash it in cold water and throw it instantly into boiling salted water boil it till it is tender about 20 minutes drain it put it into a hot vegetable dish and mix in two or three tablespoonfuls of grated Parmesan cheese toasted about lightly with a couple of forks till the cheese melts and forms what may be called cobwebs on tossing it about also add two tablespoonfuls of tomato concert sold by all grocers and bottles and serve immediately this is very cheap very satisfying and very nourishing and it is to be regretted that this popular dish is not more often used by those who are not vegetarians who had benefit both in pocket and in health were they to lessen their butcher's bill by at any rate commencing dinner like the Italians with the dishes spaghetti macaroni Italian fashion this is very similar to spaghetti only ordinary pipe macaroni is used take say a tea cup full of macaroni wash it break it up into 2-inch pieces and throw it into boiling water that has been salted strain it off put it in the stew pan for a few minutes with a little piece of butter and some pepper and salt add a tablespoon full of tomato Tom serve and serve it with some grated Parmesan cheese served separate in a dish some rub the stew pan with a head of garlic this gives it what may be called a more foreign flavor but this should not be done unless you know your guests like garlic unfortunately the proper use of garlic is very little understood in this country macaroni cheese some years back this was almost the only form in which macaroni was served in this country macaroni cheese used to be served at the finish of dinner in a dried-up state and was perhaps one of the most indigestion dishes which the skill or warmth of skill of our English cooks was able to produce wash and then boil a quarter of a pound of macaroni in a little milk till it is quite tender then put into a well-buttered oval tin a layer of macaroni and cover this with a layer of breadcrumbs mixed with grated cheese and add a few lumps of butter then put another layer of macaroni and another layer of bread crumbs and cheese continue alternate layers till you pile up the dish taking care to have a layer of dried breadcrumbs at the top warm some butter but do not boil it and pour some of the swarm butter over the top of the dish to moisten them put the dish in the oven till it is hot through then take it out and brown the top quickly with the red-hot salamander if you leave the macaroni cheese in the oven too long the dish will taste oily and the cheese get so hard as to become absolutely and adjustable any kind of grated cheese will do for this dish but to the English palate it is best when made from a moist cheese similar to that which should be used in making Welsh rabbit macaroni and eggs take half a pound of macaroni and throw it into boiling water that has been salted in the meantime have ready for hard-boiled eggs when the macaroni is nearly tender throws the hard-boiled eggs into cold water for a minute in order to enable you to take off the shelves without burning your fingers cut the eggs in half take out half the yellow yolk without breaking it cut the whites of the eggs into rings and mix these rings with the macaroni on the dish the macaroni and eggs must be flavored with pepper and salt and if possible pour a little white sauce over the whole if you have no white sauce add a little cream or a little thickened milk with a little butter dissolved in it now sprinkle a little chopped blanched parsley over the hole and ornament the dish with the 8 1/2 yolks macaroni a muffin boil half a pound of piped macaroni meanwhile warm slowly in a saucepan 3/4 of a pint of cream and slice into it half a pound of Stilton or other white cheese add two ounces of good fresh butter 2 blades of mace pounded a good pinch of cayenne and a little salt stir until the cheese is melted and the whole us free from lumps then put in the macaroni and move it gently around the pan until mixed and hot or put the macaroni on a hot dish and pour the sauce over it may be covered with fried bread crumbs of the pale colour and browned in a Dutch oven macaroni okata break up a pound of macaroni in 3 inch lengths boil as usual and drain put into a stew pan a quarter of pound of fresh butter the macaroni 12 ounces of parmesan incluye cheese mixed and about a quarter of a pint of some good sauce white sauce move the stew pan and its contents over the fire until the macaroni has absorbed the butter etc then turn it out on a dish which should be garnished with croutons of fried bread pile it in the shape of a dome cover with bread resting a little clarified butter run through a colander and brown very lightly with a salamander and be the above two recipes are taken from castles dictionary of cookery macaroni as an ornament macaroni is sometimes used to ornament the outside of puddings either savory or sweet suppose the pudding has to be made in a small round mould or Basin some pipe macaroni is boiled in water till it is tender and then cut up into little pieces a quarter of an inch in length the inside of the mould is first Stickley buttered and then these little quarter inch tubes are stuck in the butter close together the pudding for instance a custard pudding is important to the mold and the mold schemed when the pudding is turned out the outside of the pudding has the appearance of a honeycomb and looks extremely pretty the process is not difficult but rather troublesome as it requires time and patience macaroni timbala this is a somewhat expensive dish you have first to decorate a plain mould with what is called nuit paste which is made by mixing half a pound of flour with five yolks of eggs the mold is then lined with ordinary short paste made with half a pound of flour a quarter of a pound of butter and one yolk of egg mixed in the ordinary way when the mould is lined you have to fill it up with flour and bake it in a moderate oven for about an hour we then take it out empty out the flour and brush it well out with an ordinary brush and drive the mould in a very slack oven the mould is then filled with some macaroni that has been boiled tender in milk and flavored with vanilla and sugar and Parmesan cheese the macaroni must be so managed that it absorbs the moisture the mold is filled made hot and then turned out it is customary to shake some powdered sugar over the mold and then glaze it with a red-hot salamander and be very few kitchens possess a proper salamander but if you may the kitchen shovel red-hot it will be found to answer the same purpose macaroni and scallop shells take half a pound of macaroni wash it and throw it into boiling water take the macaroni out drain it and throw it into cold water then take it out and cut it into pieces not more than half an inch in length take about a quarter of a pound of butter melted in a skew pan and add about a cup full of milk or still better cream stir it and dredge in enough flour to make it thick or still better thicken it with a little wide room now add some pepper and salt about 1/4 of a grated nutmeg 2 or 3 spoonfuls of grated Parmesan cheese add the cut-up macaroni and stir the whole well up over the fire together and fill the scallop shells with the mixture and throw some grated cheese over the top make the scallops in the oven until the cheese begins to brown then pour a little oil butter over the top of the cheese if made with cream this dish is somewhat rich but forms an admirable meal eaten was plenty of bread macaroni noodles the word noodle is probably derived from French nuit paste it is made in a similar manner or nearly so French cooks use only yolk of egg and flour English cooks use beaten up eggs and sometimes even reserved the yolks for other purposes and make the paste with white an egg in any case the yolks the whole eggs or the white without the yolks must be well beaten up and then mixed in with the flour with the fingers till it makes a stiff paste this pastry dough is then rolled out with a straight rolling pin not an English one till it is as thin as a wafer the board must be well floured or it will stick a marble slab is best and if you are at a loss for a rolling pin try an empty black bottle it is very important to roll the pastry thin and it has been well observed that the best test of thinness is to be able to read a book through the paste when rolled out let each thin cake dry for five or ten minutes if you have a box of cutters you can cut this paste into all sorts of shapes according to the shape of the cutters or you can cut each thin cake into pieces about the same size and then with a sharp dry knife cut the paste into threads these threads or ornamental shapes can be thrown into boiling clear soup when they will separate of their own accord noodle paste is in fact homemade Italian paste or when cut into threads homemade vermicelli it is very nourishing as it is made with eggs and flour macaroni savory take half a pound of macaroni and boil it in some slightly salted water and let it boil and simmer till the macaroni is tender and absorbs all the water in which it is boiled now take a dessert spoon palabra mustard ie mustard in the yellow powder mixes gradually with the macaroni and add five or six tablespoonfuls of grated Parmesan cheese and a little cayenne or white pepper according to taste turn the mixture out onto a dish sprinkle some more grated Parmesan cheese over the top bake it in the oven until it is slightly brown pour little oil butter on top and serve macaroni and chestnuts bake about 20 chestnuts till they are tender and then peel them and pound them in a mortar with a little pepper and salt and butter till they are a paste next wash and boil in the ordinary way half a pound of macaroni trained off the macaroni and put it in a stew pan with the chestnuts and about a couple of ounces of butter to moisten it and stir it all together and put an onion in to flavor it as if you were making bread sauce but the onion must be taken out at Cole before it is served if the mixture gets too dry it can be moistened with a little milk or stuck after it has been stirred together for about a quarter of an hour turn it out onto a dish cover it with a little Parmesan cheese baked in the oven till it is brown and moisten the top when browned with a little oil butter macaroni and tomatoes take half a pound of macaroni wash it and boil it until it is tender in the meantime take half a dozen or more ripe tomatoes cut off the stalks squeeze out the tips and place them in a tin in the oven with a little butter to prevent their sticking it is as well to base the tomatoes once or twice with the butter and the juice that will come from them but the macaroni when tender and well drained off into a vegetable dish pour the contents of the tin butter and juice over the macaroni and add pepper and salt and toss it lightly together now place the whole tomatoes on top of the macaroni round the edge at equal distances it is a great improvement to the appearance of the dish to sprinkle a little chopped blanched parsley over the macaroni the tomatoes should be placed with the smooth red unbroken side uppermost macaroni and cream oil half a pound of macaroni cut it up into pieces about two inches long and put it into a steel pan with two ounces of butter and a quarter of a pound of grated cheese composed of equal parts of Gruyere and Parmesan cheese moisten this with about three tablespoonfuls of cream toss it all lightly together so the cheese makes cobwebs add a little pepper and salt and serve with some fried bread round edge cut up into ornamental shapes carefully made pieces of toast cut into triangles will do instead of the fried bread talia telly take some flour and water and with the addition of a look of salt make a paste which can be rolled out quite thin cut this into shapes of the breadth of half a finger throw them into boiling water and let them boil a few minutes then remove them to cold water drain them on a sieve and use them as macaroni place at the bottom of the dish some butter and grated cheese then a layer tell youtell a season with pepper another layer of butter and cheese and then want to tell you telly until the hole is used pour over it a glass of cream add a layer of cheese and finished like macaroni cheese browning it in the oven end of section 10 section 11 of Cassell's vegetarian cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by larry johnson city tennessee Cassell's vegetarian cookery by arthur gay payne chapter 3 savory rice macaroni oatmeal etc oatmeal porridge of all dishes used by vegetarians there are none more wholesome more nourishing or more useful as an article of every day diet for breakfast than oatmeal porridge when we remember the Scotch who from both body and brain ranked perhaps first amongst civilized nations almost live on this cheap and agreeable form of food we should take particular pains in the preparation of a standing dish which in itself is a strong argument in favor of a vegetarian diet when we look at the results both mentally and bodily that have followed its juice north of the Tweed the following excellent recipe for preparation of oatmeal porridge is taken from a book entitled a year's cookery by Phyllis Brown castle and company when they are children in the family it is a good plan whatever they may have for breakfast to let them begin the meal either with oatmeal porridge or bread and milk porridge is a wholesome and nourishing and will help to make them strong and hearty even grown-up people frequently enjoy a small portion of porridge served with treacle and milk oatmeal is either coarse medium or fine individual taste must determine which of these three varieties shall be chosen Scotch people generally prefer the courses kind the ordinary way of making porridge is the following put as much water as is likely to be required in a saucepan with a sprinkling of salt let the water boil half a pint of water will make a single plate full of porridge take a knife mace Myrtle is it proper utensil in the right hand and some Scotch or coarse oatmeal in the left hand and sprinkle the meal in gradually stirring it riskily all the time if any lumps form draw them to the side of the pan and crush them out when the porridge is sufficiently thick the degree of thickness must be regulated by individual taste draw the pan back a little put on the lid let the contents simmer gently until wanted if it can have two hours simmering all the better but in hundreds of families in Scotland in the north of England it is served when it has boiled for ten minutes or a quarter of an hour less oatmeal is required when it can boil a long time because the simmering swells the oatmeal and so makes it go twice as far during the boiling the porridge must be stirred frequently to keep it from sticking to the saucepan and burning but each time it is done the lid must be put on again when it is done enough it should be poured into the basin or upon a plate and serve hot with sugar or treacle and milk or cream the very best method that can be adopted for making porridge is to soak the coarse Scotch oatmeal in water for 12 hours or more if the porridge is wanted for breakfast it may be put in a pie dish overnight and left till morning as soon as the fire is lighted in the morning it should be placed on it stirring occasionally kept covered and boiling as long as possible although it may be served when it has boiled for 20 minutes when thus prepared it will be almost like a delicate jelly and acceptable to most fastidious palate the portions of porridge made in this way are a heaped tablespoon of course oatmeal – a pint of water it is scarcely necessary to give directions for making bread and milk for everyone knows how this should done it may be said that preparation has a better appearance if the bread is cut very small before boiling milk and is poured on it and also that the addition of a small pinch of salt takes away the inspected 'ti frigid economists sometimes swell the bread with boiling water then drains this off and pour milk in its place this however is almost a pity for milk is so very good for children and though recklessness is seldom to be recommended a mother might be advised to be reckless with the amount of her milk bill provided almost that the quantity of milk be not wasted and that the children have it milk porridge take a tablespoon of oatmeal and mix it up in a cup with a little cold milk till it is quite smooth in a similar way as you would mix ordinary flour and milk in making batter next put a pint of milk on to boil as soon as it boils mix in the oatmeal and milk and let it boil about a quarter of an hour taking care to keep stirring the whole time the fire should not be too fierce as the milk is very apt to burn flavor this with either salt or sugar rice and barley porridge take a quarter of a pound of rice in a quarter of a pound of scotch barley and washed them thoroughly the most perfect way of washing barley and rice is to throw them into boiling water and let them boil 5 or 10 minutes and then strain them off by this means the dirty outside is dissolved next boil the rice and barley gently for three or four hours strain them off and boil them up again you know milk for a short time before they are wanted it will often be found best to boil a barley for a couple of hours and then add the rice a little cream is a very great improvement the porridge can be flavored with pepper and salt but is very nice with brown sugar treacle or jam and when cold forms an agreeable accompaniment to stewed fruit wholemeal porridge boil a quart of water and gradually stir in about half a pound of wholemeal let it boil about a quarter of an hour and serve cold milk should accompany this porridge lentil porridge to every quart of water add about 6 tablespoons of lentil flour let the whole boil for about a quarter of an hour and flavor with pepper and salt cumin II take a tea cup full of hominy wash it in several waters and rub it well between the hands and throw away the grains that float on the top the same as you do with split peas pour the water off the top and strain it off and put it in a basin with a quart of water and cover the basin over and with a cloth put it up to soak overnight should it be required for breakfast in the morning the next day put it in an enameled stew pan with about a teaspoon of salt and let it simmer gently over the fire take care that it does not burn it is best to butter the bottom of the saucepan or if you have a small plate that will go inside you will find this a great protection let it simmer gently for rather more than an hour stir it up well and flavor it with either sugar or salt and let it be eaten with cold milk pour it on the plate or with a little butter the hominy should simmer until it absorbs all water in which it is boiled as a rule a good tea cup full will absorb a quart hominy fried this is made from the remains of cold boiled hominy when cold it will be a firm jelly cut the cold hominy into slices flour them egg and bread crumb them and then plunge them into some smoking hot oil until there are nice bright golden color they are very nice eaten with lemon juice and sugar or can be served with orange marmalade frou minty take a quarter of a pint of wheat wash it thoroughly and let it soak for 12 hours or more in the water strain it off and boil it in some milk till it is tender but do not let it get clumpy as soon as it is tender add a quart of milk flavored with a little cinnamon 3 ounces of sugar 3 ounces of carefully washed grocers currants and let it boil for a quarter of an hour beat up three egg yolks in a turn and gradually add the mixture it must not be added to the eggs in a boiling state or else it will curdle a wine glass full of brandy is a great improvement but is not absolutely necessary the wheat takes a long time to get tender probably four hours sango porridge wash this I go in cold water and boil it in some water allowing about two tablespoons to every pint add pepper and salt and let cold milk be served with the porridge milk toast this is a very useful way of using up stale bread toast the bread a light brown and if by chance any part gets black scrape it off gently butter the toast slightly layer the toast on the bottom of a soup plate and pour some boiling milk over it very little butter should be used and children often prefer a thin layer of marmalade to butter end of section 11 section 12 of Cassell's vegetarian cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Betty bee castle's vegetarian cookery by Arthur gay Paine chapter 4 eggs savory and omelettes eggs plain boiled there is an old saying that there's reason in the roasting of eggs this certainly applies equally to the more common process of boiling them there are a few breakfast delicacies more popular than a new-laid egg there are a few breakfast in delicacies more revolting than the doubtful egg which makes its appearance from time to time and which may be classed under the general heading of shop ins it is a sad and melancholy reflection that these more than doubtful shop ins were all once new late it is impossible to draw any hard and fast line to say at what exact period an egg ceases to be fit for boiling there is an old tradition the truth of which we do not endorse that eggs may arrive at a period when though they are not fit to be boiled fried poached or hard-boiled they're still good enough for puddings and pastry there is no doubt that many good puddings are spoiled because cooks imagined they can use up doubtful eggs when eggs are more than doubtful they are often brought up by the smaller pastry cooks in cheap and poor neighborhoods of our large towns such as the East End of London these eggs are called spot eggs and are sold at 30 and 40 a shilling they utilize them as follows– they hold the egg up in front of a bright Gaslight when the small black spot can be clearly seen this black spot is kept at the lowest point of the egg ie the egg is held so that this black spot is at the bottom the upper part of the egg is then broken and poured off the black spot retained the moment the smallest streak proceeds from this black spot the pouring off process is stopped of course the black part is all thrown away the stench from it being almost intolerable containing as it does sulfur added hydrogen we mentioned the fact for what it is worth it would be a bold man who tried to lay down any law as to where waste ceases and the use of wrongful material commences everything depends upon the circumstances of the case in question we fear there are many thousands hundreds of thousands in this great city of London whose everyday life more or less compares with that of a shipwrecked crew they fain would fill their belly with the husks that the swine do eat but no man gives unto them there is this to be said in favor of vegetarian diet that were it Universal grinding poverty would be banished from the earth we must not cry out too soon about using what some men call bad material lord byron when he was starving after shipwreck was glad to make a meal off the paws of his favorite dog which had been thrown away when the carcass had been used on a former occasion the simplest way of boiling ax is to place them at starting in boiling water and boil them from three to three and a half to four minutes according to whether they are liked very lightly boiled medium or well sent the egg saucepan should be small so that when the eggs are first plunged in it takes the water off the boil for a few seconds otherwise the eggs are likely to crack this applies more particularly to french eggs which have thin brittle shells containing an excess of lime probably due to the large quantity of chalk which is the distinguishing feature of the soil in the pas-de-calais which is the chief neighborhood from which french eggs are imported over a million eggs are imported from France to England every day notwithstanding the fact that thousands are kept awake by the crying of their neighbours fowls there's a strange delusion among Londoners that an egg is not good if it is milky this of course has never met within London for the simple reason that a milky egg means as a rule that it has not been laid more than a few hours for this reason eggs literally hot from the nest are not suitable for making puddings or even omelettes eggs that have been kept one or two days will be found to answer better as they possess more binding properties there is an old-fashioned idea that the best way to boil an egg is to place it in the saucepan in cold water to put the saucepan on the fire and as soon as the water boils the egg is done a very little reflection will show that this entirely depends upon the size of the saucepan and the fierceness of the fire if the saucepan were the size of the ink the water would boil before the egg was hot through on the other hand no one could place an egg in the copper on this principle and then like the copper fire eggs are best boiled in the dining room on the fire or in an ornamental egg boiler by this means we get the eggs hot an occurrence almost unknown in large hotels and big establishments eggs to break whenever you break eggs never mind what quantity always break each egg separately into a cup first see that it is good and then throw it in a basin with the rest one bad egg would spoil 50 supposing you have a dozen or two dozen new laid eggs just taken from the nest it is not an uncommon thing to have one that has been overlooked for weeks and which may be a half hatched mass of putrefaction eggs fried the first point is to have a clean frying pan which is an article of kitchen furniture very rarely indeed met with in this country for frying eggs for making omelets it is essential that the frying pan should never be used for other purposes if you think your frying pan is perfectly clean warm it in front of the fire for half a minute put a clean white cloth over the top of the finger and then rub the inside of the frying pan to fry eggs properly very little butter will be required a little olive oil will answer the same purpose if you have too much fat the white of the eggs are apt to develop into big bubbles or blisters another point is you do not want too fierce of fire fry them very slowly some cooks will almost burn the bottom of the egg before the upper part is set as soon as the white is set round the edge you will often find the yolk but not set at all surrounded by a rim of semi-transparent albumin when this is the case it is very often a good plan to take the frying pan off the fire we are presuming the stove is a shut up one and place it in the oven for a minute or so leaving the oven door open by this means the heat of the oven will set the upper part of the eggs and there's no danger of the bottom part being burnt there is a great art in taking fried eggs out of a frying pan and serving them on a dish fried eggs to look nice should have the yolk in the center surrounded by a ring of white perfectly round rather more than an inch in breadth take an egg slice in the left hand slide it under each egg separately so that the yolk gets well into the middle of the slice now take a knife in the right hand and trim off the superfluous white by this means you will be able to do it neatly the part trimmed away is virtually refuse of course you do not throw away more than is necessary but take care that the white rim around the yolk is of uniform breadth most cooks take the egg out with their right hand and attempt to trim it with the left the result is about as need is what would happen were you to attempt to write a letter with your left hand in a hurry very often the appearance of fried eggs is improved by sprinkling over them a few specks of chopped parsley in placing fried eggs on toast place the slice over the toast and draw the slice away do not push the egg on you may break it eggs poached the best kitchen implement to use for poaching eggs is a good large frying pan the mistake is to let the water boil it should only just simmer you should avoid having the white of the egg set too hard we should endeavor to have the eggs look as white as possible in order to ensure this put a few drops of vinegar or lemon juice into the water break the eggs separately into a clip and then turn them very gently into the hot water when they are set fairly firm take them out with an egg slice using the left hand as before and trim them with the right it is not necessary in poached eggs to have a clear yolk surrounded with a white uniform ring poached eggs often look best when the yolk reposes in a sort of pillowcase of white before putting them on toast or spinach etc be very careful to drain off the water this is particularly important when the water is acid especially with vinegar eggs hard-boiled place the eggs in cold water bring the water to boiling point and let them boil for 10 minutes if the hard-boiled eggs are wanted hot put them in cold water for half a minute in order that you may remove the shells without burning your fingers if the eggs are required cold it is best not to remove the shells till just before they are wanted but if they have to be served cold similar to what we meet with that railway refreshment rooms let them be served cold whole if you cut a hard-boiled egg the yolk very soon gets discolored and brown around the edge shrivels up and becomes most unappetizing in appearance eggs curried take some hard-boiled eggs cut them in halves remove the half yolks and cut them in rings place all these rings round the edge of the dish and pile the white rings up to make a sort of border pour some curry sauce in the middle place the half yolks at equal distances apart on the white round the edge and sprinkle a few specks of green parsley round the edge on the whites this will give the dish a pretty appearance eggs deviled takes a half a dozen eggs boil them hard remove the shells while hot cut them in halves scoop out the yolk and cut a tiny piece off the bottom of each white cup so that it will stand upright a lot Columbus next take all the yolks and put them in a basin and pound them with a little butter till you get a thick squash add some cayenne pepper according to taste a little white pepper a little salt and a few drops of chili vinegar or ordinary vinegar you can also add a little finely chopped parsley say a teaspoon full fill each cup with some of the mixture and as there will be more than enough to fill them owing to the butter bring them to a point like a cone deviled eggs are best served cold in which case they look best placed on a silver or ordinary dish the bottom of which is covered with green parsley the white looks best on a green bed some cooks chop up the little bits of white cut off from the bottom of the cups divide them in two portions and color one half pink by shaking them in a saucer with a few drops of cochineal these white and pink specks are then sprinkled over the parsley and be in an ordinary way deviled eggs require anchovy sauce to be mixed with the yolks but anchovy sauce is not allowed in vegetarian cookery eggs alabone Fung proceed exactly as in making deviled eggs till you place the yolks in the basin then add to these yolks wall hot a little dissolved butter and small pieces of chopped cold boiled carrot turnip celery and beetroot season with white pepper and salt and mix well together add also a suspicion of nutmeg and a little lemon juice fill the cups with this while the mixture is moist as when the butter gets cold the mixture gets firm if you use – beetroot as well as other vegetables it is best to fill half the cups with half the mixture before any beetroot is added then add the beetroot and stir the mixture well up and it will turn a bright red now fill the remaining half of the cups and place them on the dish containing the parsley alternately the red contrasts prettily with a light yellowish white of the first half do not color the white specks with coke Tennille as this is a different shade of red from the beetroot you can chopped off the white and sprinkle it over the parsley with a little chopped beetroot as well eggs a lot ripe small Spanish onion or perhaps best for this dish but ordinary onions can be used cut the onions crossways after peeling them so that they fall in rings and remove the white core – Spanish or half a dozen ordinary onions will be sufficient fry these rings of onions and butter till they are tender without browning them take them out of the frying pan and put them aside add a spoonful of flour to the frying pan and make a paste with the butter and then add sufficient milk so that when it is boiled and stirred up it makes a thick sauce add pepper and salt a little lemon juice and a small quantity of grated nutmeg put back the rings of onions into this and let them simmer gently take half a dozen hard-boiled eggs cut the eggs in halves remove the yolks and cut the whites into rings like The Onion's mixing these white egg rings with the onions and sauce make the hole hot and serve on a dish using the hard boiled half yolks to garnish sprinkle a little chopped parsley over the hole and serve egg forcemeat of or egg bowls take three hard-boiled yolks of eggs powder them mix in a row yolk add a little pepper and salt a small quantity of grated nutmeg about a salt spoonful of finely chopped parsley chopped up with a pinch of savory herbs or a pinch of dust from bottled savoury herbs did from them maybe added instead roll these into balls not bigger than a very small marble flour them and throw them into boiling water till they are set in many parts of the continent hard boiled yolks of eggs served whole are used as egg balls a much cheaper way of making egg boss is as follows beat up one egg at a teaspoonful of chopped blanched parsley some pepper and salt and a very little grated nutmeg sift a bottle of ordinary mixed savory herbs in a sieve and take about half a salt spoonful of the dust and mix this with the egg this will be found really better than using the herbs themselves now make some very fine breadcrumbs from stale bread and mix these with the beaten up egg till you make a sort of soft paste or dough roll this into balls the size of a marble flour them and throw them in boiling water the boss must be small or they will split in boiling eggs a gratin make about half a pint of butter sauce make it hot over the fire and stir in about two ounces of Parmesan cheese 1/4 of a nutmeg graded some white pepper and the juice of half a lemon make this hot and then add the yolks of four eggs stir it all up and keep stirring very quickly till the mixture begins to thicken when you must instantly remove it from the fire but continue stirring for another minute in the meantime have ready some hard-boiled eggs cut these into slices and make a circle of the bigger slices on a disk then spread a layer of the mixture over the slices of egg and place another layer on this smaller than the one below then another layer of mixture and so on with alternate layers till you pile it up in the shape of a pyramid spread a layer of the remainder of the mixture over the surface and sprinkle some powdered light-colored bread rasping –zz mixed with some grated Parmesan cheese over the whole place the dish in the oven to get hot and to slightly Brown and then serve some fried bread cut into pretty shapes can be used to ornament the base eggs spinach make a thick puree of spinach take some hard boiled eggs cut them in halves while hot after removing the shells and press each half a little way into the puree so that the yellow yolk will be shown surrounded by the white ring be very careful not to smear the edge with the spinach and be sometimes eggs are poached and laid on the spinach whole eggs and turnip tops proceed exactly as above using a puree of turnip tops instead of spinach eggs and asparagus have ready some of the green parts of asparagus boil tender and cut up into little pieces an eighth of an inch long so that they look like peas beat up four eggs very thoroughly with some pepper and salt and mix in the asparagus only do not break the pieces of green melt a couple of ounces of butter in a small Stute pan and as soon as it commences to froth pour in the beaten up egg and asparagus stir the mixture quickly over the fire being careful to scrape the bottom of the saucepan as soon as the mixture thickens pour it on some hot toast and serve eggs and celery have ready some stewed celery on toast see celery stewed poach some eggs and place them on the top hard-boiled eggs cut into slices can be added to the celery instead of poached eggs when stewed celery is served as a course by itself the addition of the eggs and plenty of bread make it a wholesome and satisfying meal egg salad see salads egg sandwiches see sandwiches egg sauce see sauces egg toast beat up a couple of eggs melt an ounce of butter in a saucepan and add to it a little pepper and salt as soon as the butter begins to froth add the beaten up egg and stir the mixture very quickly and the moment it begins to thicken pour it over a slice of hot buttered toast eggs a la Dolfina take 10 hard-boiled eggs cut them in halves and remove the yolks and place the yolks in a basin with a piece of new bread about as big as the fist that has been soaked in some milk or better still cream and a teaspoon full of chopped parsley 1/4 of a grated nutmeg and 2 ounces of grated Parmesan cheese rub the whole well together and then add two whole eggs well beaten up to the mixture to moisten it next fill all these white cups of eggs with some of this mixture place the eggs well together and spread a thin layer of the mixture over the top then take a smaller number of half eggs filled and place on the top and make a pyramid so that a single half egg is at the top you can place 10 half eggs at the bottom in one layer 6 half eggs on the top of these spreading a thin layer of the mixture then three half eggs one more layer of the mixture and then 1/2 a at the summit this dish is sometimes ornamented by forcing hard-boiled yolks of eggs through a wire sieve it falls like yellow vermicelli into threads this dish should be placed in the oven to be made quite hot and some kind of white sauce should be poured around the edge eggs and black butter fry some eggs serve them up on a hot dish and pour some black but around the base see black butter sauce eggs and garlic this is better adapted for an Italian than an English palate take half a dozen heads of garlic and fry them in a little butter in order to remove the rankness of flavor take them out and pound them in a mortar with rather more than a tablespoon full of oil heat this on the fire in a stew pan after adding some pepper and salt beat up an egg and stir this in with the oil and garlic till the mixture gets thick arrange some slices of hard-boiled eggs four eggs would be sufficient pour this mixture in the center and serve eggs with mushrooms take half a pint of button mushrooms and de fresh peel them and throw them instantly into water made acid with lemon juice in order that they may not turn a bad color in the meantime slice up a good-sized Spanish onion and fry the onion in a little butter as soon as the onion is a little tender chop up and add the mushrooms put all this into a stew pan with a little butter sauce or a little water can be added and then thickened with a little butter and flour let this simmer gently for nearly half an hour add a little maid mustard pepper and salt and a dessert spoon full of vinegar before sending to table add half a dozen hard-boiled eggs the whites should be cut into rings and should be only put in the sauce long enough to get hot the yolks should be kept separate but must be warmed up in the sauce eggs and onions cut up a large Spanish onion in slices and fry it in some butter till it is a light brown and tender but do not let it burn drain off the butter and put the fried onion on a dish sprinkle some cayenne pepper and a little salt over the onions and squeeze the juice of a whole lemon over it now poach some eggs and serve them on top of the onion eggs and potatoes take the remains of some flowery potatoes beat up an egg and mix the potato flour with the egg you can also chop up very finely a small quantity of onion and parsley and season with plenty of pepper and salt the respective quantities of Flowery potatoes and beaten egg must be so regulated that you can roll the mixture into balls without there having any tendency to break make the balls big enough so that when you press them between the hands you can squeeze the ball into the shape of an ordinary egg or you can mold them into the shape with the tablespoon now flour these imitation eggs in order to dry the surface and then dip them into well beaten up egg and cover them with dried breadcrumbs and fry them in a little butter or oil or brown them in the oven occasionally basting them with a little butter eggs and sauce Robert take some hard boiled eggs cut them into quarters and make them hot in some sauce robert c robert sauce and serve with fried or toasted bread in a dish eggs and sorrel make a thick puree of sorrel sea sorrel sauce and serve some hard boiled or poached eggs on the top eggs broiled cut a large slice of crumb of bread off a big loaf toast it lightly put some pieces of butter on it and put it on a dish in front of the fire then break some eggs carefully onto the toast and let them set from the heat of the fire like a joint roasting when the side nears the fire gets set it will be necessary to turn the dish round when the hole has set squeeze the juice of an orange over the eggs and a little grated nutmeg may be added the eggs and toast should be served in the same dish in which they are baked eggs butter break some eggs into a flat dish then take a little butter and make it hot in a frying pan till it Frizzles and begins to turn brown now pour this very hot butter which is hotter than boiling water over the eggs in the dish put the dish in the oven a short time and finish off setting the yolks with a red-hot salamander egg scrambled scrambled eggs when finished properly should have the appearance of yellow and white streaks distinct in color but yet all joined together in one mess melt a little butter in the frying pan break in some eggs as if for frying of course the whites begin to set before the yolks as soon as the whites are nearly but not quite set stir the whole together till the whole mass sets by this means you will get yellow and white streaks join together it is very important that you do not let the eggs get Brown at the bottom you will therefore require a perfectly clean frying pan and not too fierce afire eggs and sunshine this is a name given to fried eggs with tomato served on the top you want a dish that will stand the heat consequently take an oval baking tin or enamel dish that you can put on the top of a shut up stove melt a little butter in this and as soon as it begins to Frizzle break some eggs into the dish and let them all set together as soon as they are set for four or five tablespoonfuls of tomato conserv on the top this is much better than tomato sauce which contains vinegar or you can bake a Fidesz and ripe tomatoes in a tin in the oven and place these on the top instead of the tomato conserv eggs and cucumber peel and slice up two or three little cucumbers of the size generally sold on a barrow at a penny each put these with two or three ounces of butter in a stew pan and 3 small onions about the size of the top of the thumb chopped very fine fry these and add a dessert spoonful of vinegar when the cucumber is tender and a little time has been allowed for the vinegar to evaporate add 6 hard-boiled eggs cut into slices make these very hot and serve pepper and salt must be added eggs with cheese take a quarter of a pound of grated cheese the cheese should be dry and white melt this cheese gently in a stew pan over the fire with a little bit of butter about as big as the thumb in order to assist the cheese and melting mix with it a brimming teaspoon full of chopped parsley 2 or 3 tiny spring onions chopped very fine and about a quarter of a small grated nutmeg when the cheese is melted add 6 beaten up eggs and stir the whole together till they are set fried or toasted bread should be served round the edge of the dish little eggs for garnishing this is a nice dish when you require a lot of white of eggs for other purposes such as icing a wedding cake or making light vanilla or almond biscuits take 6 hard-boiled yolks powder them flavour with a little pepper and salt and mix in 3 raw yolks mix this well together and roll them into shapes like very small sausages pointed at each end like a foreign cigar flour these on the outside and throw them into boiling water these can be used for garnishing purposes for the vast majority of vegetarian dishes they can be flavored if wished with grated nutmeg chopped parsley and a few savory herbs and a section 12 section 13 of Cassell's vegetarian cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Betty bee Cassell's vegetarian cookery by Arthur J Payne chapter 4 omelets it is a strange fact but not the less true that to get a well-made omelet in a private house in this country is the exception and not the rule a few general remarks on making omelets will we hope not be out of place in writing a book on an exceptional style of cookery in which omelets should play a most important part first of all we require an omelet pan and for this purpose the cheaper the frying pan the better the best omelet pan of all is the copper one tinned inside copper conveys heat quicker than almost any other metal consequently if we use an ordinary frying pan the thinner it is the quicker will he be conveying it is very essential that the frying pan be absolutely clean and it will be found almost essential to reserve the omelet pan for omelets only a frying pan that has cooked meat should not be used for the purpose and although in vegetarian cookery a frying pan has not been used in this manner we should still avoid one in which onions or vegetables or even black butter has been made the inside of an omelet pan should always look as if it had only just left the ironmongers shop the next great question is how much butter should be allowed for say 6 eggs on this point the greatest authorities differ we will first quote our authorities and then attempt to give an explanation that reconciles the difference a plain omelet may be roughly described as settings of eggs well beaten up by stirring them up and hot butter one of the oldest cookery books we can call to mind is entitled the experienced housekeeper by Elizabeth ruffled the book which was published in 1775 is dedicated to the Honorable Lady Elizabeth Warburton whom the authoress formerly served as housekeeper the recipe is entitled to make an amulet the book states put a quarter of a pound of butter into a frying pan break 6 eggs franca tele also gives 4 ounces of butter to 6 eggs on the other hand Sawyer the great cook gives 2 ounces of butter to 6 eggs so also does the equally great Louise use – food cook 2 louis xvi we may add that Cassell's dictionary of cookery recommended 2 ounces of butter – 6 eggs while Cassell's showing cookery recommends 4 eggs the probable reason why to such undoubtedly great authorities as Sawyer and Frankie telly should differ is that in making one kind of omelet you would use less butter than in making another Frankie telly wrote for what may be described as that high-class cooking suited for Pall Mall clubs where no one better than himself knew how best to raise the jaded appetite of a wealthy Epicure Sawyer's book was written for the people there are two kinds of omelets one in which the egg is scarcely beaten at all and in which when cooked the egg appears set in long streaks there's also the richer omelet which is sent to table more resembling a light pudding for the former of these omelets two ounces of butter will suffice for six eggs for the latter of these you will require four ounces of butter or else the omelet will be leathery in Holland Belgium and Germany and in country villages in France the omelet is made as a roll with six eggs – two ounces of butter it comes up like eggs that have been set in the higher class restaurants in Paris like B Knowles or the cafe unless the omelet is lighter and probably about four ounces of butter would be used to 6 eggs this probably explains the different directions given in various cookery books for making omelets omelet plain melt four ounces of butter in a frying pan heat up eggs till they froth add a little pepper and salt pour the beaten up eggs into the frying pan as soon as the butter begins to Frizzle and with the tablespoon keep scraping the bottom of the frying pan in every part not forgetting the edge gradually the mixture becomes lumpy still go on scraping till about two-thirds or more our lumpy and the rest liquid now slacking the heat slightly by lifting the frying pan from the fire and push the omelette into half the frying pan so that it is in the shape of a semicircle by this time probably it will be nearly set take the frying pan off the fire and hold it in a slanting direction in front of the fire when the omelette is set as it will quickly do slide off the omelette from the frying pan onto a hot dish with an egg slice and serve omelet plane another way put 2 ounces of butter into a frying pan break 6 eggs into a basin with a little pepper and salt and beat them very slightly so that the yolks and whites are quite mixed into one but do not be the more than you can help and do not let the eggs fry as soon as the butter Frizzles pour in the beaten eggs scrape the frying pan quickly with a spoon in every part till the mixture gets lumpy now slack in the heat if the fire is fierce and let the mixture set in the frying pan like a pancake as soon as it is nearly set with perhaps only a dessert spoon full of liquid left unset turn the omelet over 1/2 unto the other half in the shape of a semicircle and bring the spoonful of unset fluid to join them over the edge slide off the omelette onto a hot dish with an egg slice omelet with Fein err chopped up a dessert spoonful of parsley and add a good pinch of powdered savory herbs add these with pepper and salt to the six beaten up eggs in a basin beat up the eggs either slightly or very thoroughly according to whether you use 2 ounces of butter or for proceeding every respect in making the omelet as directed for plain omelet omelette with onion proceed exactly as in the above recipe only adding to the chopped parsley a piece of onion or shallot about as big as the top of the thumb down to the first joint also very finely chopped when onion is used in making an omelette a little extra pepper should be added omelette with cheese proceed as if making an ordinary omelette with four ounces of butter add to the six well beaten up eggs about four ounces of grated Parmesan cheese a small quantity of cream will be found a great improvement to this omelette a little pepper and salt must of course be added as well potato omelet mix three ounces of a flowery potato with six eggs a little pepper and salt and half a pint of milk and make the milk boil and then stand for a couple of minutes before it is mixed with the eggs pour this mixture into three or four ounces of butter and proceed as in making an ordinary omelet potato omelet sweet proceed exactly as above only instead of adding pepper and salt mix in a brimming tablespoon full of finely powdered sugar the juice of a lemon with half a grated nutmeg Cheese Souffle to make a small Cheese Souffle in a round cake tin proceed as follows make the tin very hot in the oven put in about an ounce of butter so as to make the tin oily in every part inside the tin must be tilted so that the butter pours around the size of the tin as well as the bottom take two eggs separate the yolks from the whites and beat the whites to a stiff fall beat up the two yolks very thoroughly with a quarter of a pint of milk add to this two tablespoonfuls of grated Parmesan cheese add this mixture to the beaten up whites and mix the whole carefully together now pour this mixture into the hot butter tin which should be five or six inches deep and bake it in the oven the mixture will rise to five or six times its original depth as soon as it is done run with a souffle from the oven door to the dining room door however quick you may be the souffle we'll probably sink an inch on the way some cooks wrap hot flannel on the outside of the tin to keep up the heat if you have a folded dinner napkin round the tin for a parent's sake as is usually the case fold the napkin before you make the souffle and make the napkins sufficiently big round that it can be dropped over the tin in an instant the napkin should be pinned and be quite 1/2 an inch in diameter bigger than the width of the tin this is to save time delay in serving the souffle is fatal omelette souffle sweet in making it omelette souffle sweet you can proceed in exactly the same manner as making a cheese souffle with the exception that you add two tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar instead of two tablespoonfuls of grated cheese the omelette will however require flavoring of some kind the two most delicate being vanilla and orange flower water you can flavor it with lemon by rubbing a few lumps of sugar on the outside of the lemon and then pounding this with the powdered sugar it must be pounded very thoroughly and mixed very carefully or else one part of the omelette will taste stronger of lemon than the other some powdered sugar should be shaken over the top of the souffle just before serving omelette souffle another way when a souffle is made on a larger scale and served up on a flat dish it is best to proceed as follows take 6 ounces of powdered sugar and mix them with 6 yolks of eggs and a dessert spoonful of flour and a pinch of salt – this must be added whatever flavoring is used such as vanilla this is all mixed together till it is perfectly smooth next beat the six whites to a very stiff froth mix this in with a batter lightly put two ounces of butter into an omelet pan and as soon as the butter begins to Frizzle pour in the mixture as it begins to set around the edges turn it over and heap it up in the middle and then slide the omelette off onto a plated edged baking dish which must be well buttered put it in the oven for about a quarter of an hour to let it rise shake some powdered sugar over the top and very quickly omelette sweet make an ordinary plain omelet with six eggs and either 2 or 4 ounces of butter as directed for making omelet plain instead of adding pepper and salt to the beaten up eggs add one or two tablespoonfuls of finely powdered sugar at the last moment sprinkle a little powdered sugar over the omelet and just glaze the sugar with a red-hot salamander omelet with jam make a plain sweet omelet as directed above adding rather less sugar about half if you make the omelet with 2 ounces of butter and turn it over put a couple of tablespoon Foles of GM on the omelet and turn the 1/2 over the Jim it is best to put the jam in the oven for a minute or two to take the chill off if you make the omelet with 4 ounces of butter you must put the jam by the side of the omelet and let the thin part of the omelet cover it the question what Jam is best for sweet omelet is purely a matter of taste most good judges consider that apricot jam is the best and if the sweet omelette itself be flavored with a little essence of a knot the result is generally considered one of the nicest sweets that can be sent to table strawberry jam especially if some of the strawberries are whole is also very nice the objection to raspberry jam is the pips a most delicious omelette can be made by chopping up some preserves slices of pineapple and placing this in the omelet and making the pineapple syrup hot and pouring it round the base red currant jelly black currant jam and plum jam can all be used one of the cheapest and in the opinion of many the best sweet almonds can be made with 6 eggs 2 ounces of butter and through your four tablespoonfuls of orange marmalade in this case that will cost no more to rub a few lumps of sugar on the outside of an orange and pound these with the powdered sugar you use to sweeten the omelet if the marmalade is liquid as it often is one or two tablespoonfuls of the juice can be poured around the edge of the omelet omelette ohrim as a rural spirits are not allowed in vegetarian cooker an omelette au Rhum is simply a sweet omelette playing with plenty of powdered sugar sprinkled over the top with some rum ignited poured over it just before it is sent to table the way to ignite the rum is to fill a large spoon like a gravy spoon and hold a lighted wooden taper not wax it tastes underneath the spoon till the rum lights the dish should be hot it may be a consolation to teetotalers to reflect that the fact of burning the rum causes all the alcohol to evaporate and there's nothing left but the flavour omelette au Kirsch proceed is above substituting Kirsch Massa for rum omelette vegetable a plain omelet can also be served with any puree of vegetables so that we can have asparagus omelet artichoke omelette French bean omelet celery omelet spinach omelet mushroom omelet tomato omelette etc end of section 13