Choice Cookery | Catherine Owen | Cooking | Audiobook full unabridged | English | 2/3
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Choice cookery is not intended for households that have to study economy, except where economy is a relative term; where, perhaps, the housekeeper could easily spend a dollar for the materials of a luxury, but could not spare the four or five dollars a caterer would charge.
Many families enjoy giving little dinners, or otherwise exercising hospitality, but are debarred from doing so by the fact that anything beyond the ordinary daily fare has to be ordered in, or an expensive extra cook engaged. And although we may regret that hospitality should ever be dependent on fine cooking, we have to take things as they are. It is not every hostess who loves simplicity that dares to practise it.
It was to help the women who wish to know at a glance what is newest and best in modern cookery that these chapters were written for Harper’s Bazar, and are now gathered into a book. It is hoped by the writer that the copious details and simplification of different matters will enable those who have already achieved success in the plainer branches of cookery to venture further, and realize for themselves that it is only the “first step that costs.” – Summary by the Preface
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chapter 12 of choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Betty bee choice cookery by Katherine Owen on the manner of preparing croquettes cutlets chromis keys results and cigarettes although these ever popular dishes are all or may all be prepared from one mixture there is a difference in the manner of using it which I will here explain croquettes are made from a soft creamy mixture chilled on ice till firm enough to mold then simply dipped into egg and crumbs and fried in very hot fat cutlets are the same of course fancy cutlets are meant not the French chops so-called only they are shaped to imitate a real cutlet with a little bone inserted or in the case of lobster Cutlass a small claw is used to simulate the chop bone many only stick a sprig of parsley where the bone should be to keep up the fiction chrome s keys are rolls of the same mixture enveloped in very thin slices hardly thicker than paper of fat larding pork a small toothpick holds the pork in place the rolls are then egged chromed and fried results are the same thing only rather easier to prepare being rolled in very thin pastry instead of pork cigarettes the newest variation of the favorite entree and most dainty of them all in appearance are thin roles of croquette mixture or better still quenelle meat not thicker than a small cigar these are rolled in pastry thoroughly deadened pinched very securely and fried a very pale brown as the manner of making the mixture is about the same for all kinds of meats fish or game bearing only in flavor a little wine a little onion or sweet herbs taking the place of the mushrooms in some cases I will give exact directions from making sweetbread cutlets chicken game or may be substituted for the sweetbreads naming them accordingly the ham may always be omitted where the flavor is objected to for those who like it it adds very much to sweetbreads but would be out of place with game which should depend on its own individual flavor cutlets of sweetbreads soak a pair of sweetbreads in salt and water for an hour longer if there's much blood about them then cook them half an hour in stock drain them and let them get cold trim off all superfluous fat and gristle chop them with one ounce of lean boiled ham to each pair of large sweetbreads and half a can of mushrooms a small teaspoon full of salt the sixth of one of pepper put an ounce of flour in a small fixed saucepan with an ounce of butter stir them together over the fire until they bubble then add a half pint of liquid consisting of a gill of stiff jellied stock and a gill of thick cream stir till they boil and form a smooth sauce mix the sweetbreads mixture with the sauce the mixture should be a soft creamy mess not in any way so stiff a sausage meat or so as to remain in a heap without spreading when poured on a plate it should be of a consistency that will slowly settle yet there must not be any liquid whatever on this question of consistency depends the quality of the croquettes cutlets etc made from it if too stiff they will be dry and only a superior sort of hash ball what you have to aim at is a croquette or cutlet that will ooze out of the thin shell of egg and crumb when pressed with a fork success and attaining this can always be secured by taking care to moisten the minced meat with the sauce made a very stiff jelly in the proportion of half a pint of liquid the melted jelly and cream and one ounce each of flour and butter this will mix a pint of sweet bread and mushrooms or rather less of dry meat such as the breasts of chicken veal etc I dwell at this point because this class of entrees is always popular and if the consistency is once well understood success is certain to follow when the mixtures forward into shallow dishes or place a piece of buttered paper should be laid over them and then they should be placed on ice until quite firm when ready cut small pieces of the mixture make them into shapes as nearly resembling a french chop as you can using a very little cracker meal should they stick to your hands have before you a large dish of cracker meal and the yolks of two eggs beaten with two small table spoonfuls of water cover each cutlet thoroughly with egg then with meal gently patting them to make the meal at here insert anything you please to represent the bone turkey ribs may be boiled white and kept for this purpose cutlets required to be dropped into very hot fat and taken up within two minutes consult directions for frying in former chapter sweetbread croquettes are simply made into cork or pear shapes never large instead of cutlets when the white meat of chicken replaces half the sweetbreads they are called cutlets or croquettes all RN make no attempt to mould croquettes or cutlets until the mixture is firm enough to cut then handle very quickly make into proper forms finish them either as cutlets or what you wish and let them remain in a cold place for an hour or two before cooking this last direction may not be always possible and to an expert is not necessary but when time can be given the amateur should always plan to do it but though in inexperienced hands it is possible though not so easy to make croquettes and fry them as soon as breaded do not be led to believe that you can dispense with putting the mixture on the ice the first time I remember a young lady who was very proud of her croquettes telling me she never found it necessary to chill the mixture she could secure perfect shape without I asked to see the process and decided in my own mind that she must go widely from the directions and have her material as stiff as hash but I found she solved the difficulty in a different way she simply worked in quantities of cracker meal using it like flour of course the croquettes were spoiled although it was true they kept their shape and I did not think the young lady realized at all that she was changing and impoverishing the preparation all together braised sweetbreads take a pair of sweetbreads lay in salt and water for an hour then blanch press slightly between two dishes when cold remove all skin fat and gristle cut a very fine a small carrot a turnip and an onion put them in a stew pan with the sweetbreads pour over them a pint of stock lay a piece of buttered paper over them and braise carefully for half an hour take them out of the stew pan put them in a small meat pan boil the liqueur rapidly a couple of minutes then base the sweetbreads with it several times put them in a quick oven to brown serve on slices of fried bread pour half a pint of Spanish sauce round and garnish with mushrooms tartlets of chicken cut six ounces of the breasts of a cooked chicken into very small pieces chop up one truffle twelve mushrooms and two ounces of lean boiled ham stir them into a Gill of white sauce butter thickly 9 dairy all molds line them neatly with quenelle meat of which you will require half a pound fill the center carefully with the mixed chicken cover the top carefully with quenelle meat and steam for 20 minutes dish on a circle of spinach pour bechamel sauce over and round fill the center of the dish with peas or mixed vegetables chicken ala hollandaise take out the breast bone of a large young fowl and fill the space with the following force me half a pint of fine breadcrumbs an ounce and a half of butter a small boiled onion chopped and a dozen oysters cut into small pieces a soft spoonful of salt a pinch of pepper bind together with an egg sew up the fowl and trust for roasting make a nice batter as for fine fritters and when the fowl has been in the oven half an hour or who are part of the batter over it when dry and beginning to brown pour more until it is sickly coded and a nice brown based often cut up the chicken and serve with Aleman sauce and lemon end of chapter 12 chapter 13 of choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Betty bee choice cookery by Katherine Owen patties the directions for making one kind will serve four patties generally in cities the cases are very easily bought but where they have to be made at home only one who is already an expert in making puff paste should attempt them patties when served as an entree should be quite small or half of them will certainly be left on the plates roll puff paste a quarter of an inch thick for each patty cut three circles from it moisten the surface of two very slightly with water place one on the other then with a sharp pen knife cut a circle nearly through the third round leaving a margin of 1/3 of an inch lay this round carefully on the other two brushed the top with white of ink be sure not to touch the sides and bake in a very quick oven patties must be watched and turned if they show signs of rising unevenly when they are a fine yellow brown take them out and leave five minutes for them to cool slightly then with a penknife or a boning knife carefully remove the top formed by the smaller circle you marked and which if the paste was very light in the oven in good condition will probably have risen it out of the center be careful in handling these covers for wild one they are very brittle with a coffee spoon removed the half cooked dough from the center of the patty taking care however to leave sufficient thickness of inner crust to prevent the sauce from using through the filling for patties can be made before it is needed but when that is done it must be made quite hot before it is put into the cases as if it were put in cold the pastry would burn before the inside became warm dressed in paddy cases these make a very pretty kind of patty when puff paste is not to be had and even when it is our desirable variety they are made from fine light Baker's bread cut slices an inch and a half thick then with a biscuit cutter about two inches in diameter cut circles from these slices and with another cutter a size smaller press halfway through each you will now have pieces of bread the size and shape of patties beat four eggs mix with a pint of milk and a salt spoonful of salt pour this into a shallow pan and stand the bread patties in it the amount of milk and eggs must of course depend on the number of patties the proportion named is enough for six small ones the patties must remain steeping until they are thoroughly soaked they must be carefully turned upside down when the lower part is sufficiently steeped the time required will depend on the quality of the bread but one hour will generally suffice the bread must be thoroughly penetrated by the custard be almost as moist as mush yet be in no danger with careful handling of breaking when sufficiently steeped take each one on a cake turner and lay it on a drainer they may be prepared some hours before they are needed for cooking when quite drained baste each one carefully with beaten egg till every part is coated then smother an in cracker meal gently pat it to make it adhere then slip the patty onto a dish until you are ready to fry do not attempt to move the patties with the hand or a spoon but with a flat skimmer or cake turner when prepared as directed make three pounds of lard very hot in a deep frying kettle place three of the patties on a fine wire frying basket and fry brown the fat should be excessively hot as the patties being full of coal custard will not burn and will rapidly cool it should be a delicate brown in six or seven minutes let the fat come back to the original intense heat before putting in the other patties when they are fried removed the center you marked with a smaller cutter with a sharp thin knife and small teaspoon leaving the sides about half an inch thick they are now ready to fill if the patties are just right the inside you remove should be of a custard-like texture not like soft bread indeed and eating them the bread should not be easily detected these patties are very delicious filled with any of the usual fillings or for dessert with stiff preserve they have no covers consequently the filling should be piled high without allowing the sauce to run over and garnished with parsley or watercress sweetbreads patties so two very white sweetbreads in salt and water one-hour par boil for 20 minutes then let them cool remove the skin fat and gristle cut them into half inch dice and lay them aside while you prepare the following sauce put a Gill of strong white stock into a small saucepan with a Gill of mushroom liquor and a dozen small mushrooms cut in four if approved to boil in another saucepan cook an ounce of flour and one a butter together stirring till they bubble pour the two gills of stock quickly to it and stir until smooth season with half a teaspoon full of salt and very little pepper lay in the sweetbreads and let them stew 20 minutes strain them off from the sauce which boil down stirring constantly to prevent burning till very thick then add a gill a thick fresh cream the sauce should now be thick enough to mask the spoon very heavily pour it over the sweetbreads and stir it together this is now ready for filling the patties if mushrooms are not liked they may be a minute the liquor replaced by a Gill of stock and a teaspoon full of white wine moister patties take a dozen and a half blue points Skol them in their own liquor but do not leave them a moment after they reach the boiling point straying the liquor from them cut each oyster in for put a table full of flour and one of butter into a small saucepan over the fire serve them together until they bubble then pour to them half a pint of the strained liquor of the oysters or part liquor and part stock stir continually and let the sauce boil very thick and lay in the oysters and simmer half a minute the amount of seasoning required will depend on the saltness of the oysters but a salt spoonful of salt will probably not be too much a little pepper and a teaspoon full of essence of anchovies just enough to make the sauce a delicate salmon color for the last thing stir in one small teaspoon full of lemon juice the consistency of the sauce for all patties should be that a very thick double cream when it is not thick enough it can always be reduced by boiling down taking care not to boil the meat or oysters etc in it chicken patties take the breasts of a boiled chicken cut it into dice use half a pint of the liquor in which it was boiled to make the sauce put this broth in a small saucepan with a teaspoon full of lean boiled ham chopped a little take care there's not a particle at the outside of the ham or it may impart a smoky flavor let the ham simmer in the broth while you melt together a tablespoon full of flour and one of butter when they bubble and the broth has been boiled down to about 1/2 strain the ladder into a half pint measure fill up with cream and stir this quickly to the flour and butter when the sauce is thick and smooth put in the chicken keep the mixture at boiling point five minutes then set the saucepan in another of boiling water and stir in the beaten yolks of two eggs only just let them thicken then remove from the fire and use for filling the patty cases a teaspoon full of sherry is often added to the sauce if this filling is not used while hot it must be reheated in a double boiler and watched or the eggs will kernel or the filling may be prepared and the eggs added after it is reheated Boucher's of any kind are simply patties made very small indeed for this reason the filling always chopped instead of being cut into dice the essence of anchovy mentioned is the most useful sauce for fish and can be bought at any large grocery end of chapter 13 chapter 14 of choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Betty bee choice cookery by Katherine Owen chapter fourteen entrees in an earlier chapter I gave directions for quenelles as an adjunct to soups and for garnishing used in this way they are only a revival of an old French fashion coarsely imitated in the United days of anglo-saxon cookery by the English forced meatballs lately however not only are quenelles a great feature in high-class cookery as additions to made dishes but they are most fashionable and delicious entree and replaced with great advantage the to frequent croquette to prepare quenelle meat for entrees mode number one to make quenelle meat a mortar is indispensable as it must be pounded to a pulp that will go through a sieve and i have known a persevering woman grade the breasts of a chicken on a large grater but this is very slow work take the white meat from a large young uncooked chicken and remove all skin fat and sinew melt together over the fire a scant tablespoon full of butter and one of flour when they are thick and smooth stir in a Gill of boiling water quickly this should now be a thick paste put it away to cool take half as much butter as you have of chicken and half the quantity of paste technically called panada that you have of butter put the paste into a mortar pound it well add the butter pound again until smooth add the chicken cut up very small and pound until the hole forms a smooth pulp add one whole egg and the yolks of three the third of a salt spoonful of white pepper salt must depend on whether the butter seasoned sufficiently work all well together stir in half a gill of thick cream and past the hole through a wire sieve put the hole on ice to get firm the quenelle should be about the size of a small egg flatten shape with two tablespoons dipped in flour have ready a frying pan with boiling water in which is a salt spoonful of salt they each quenelle carefully in and poach for ten minutes the water must boil very gently drain on a sieve serve with mushroom or tomato sauce have a little dried parsley and graded tongue or ham and scatter alternately on each canal mode number two one pound of lean veal cutlet pound it thoroughly in a mortar then rub it through a sieve or it may be forced after it is pounded through a vegetable strainer steep a pound of bread crumb and tepid water wring it in a cloth to get rid of the moisture put it in a stew pan with the tablespoon full of butter and a pinch of salt stir it over the fire until it ceases to stick to the pan and forms a smooth paste place it between two plates to cool this is called bread panada put into a mortar 12 ounces of the prepared veal six ounces of fresh butter and eight ounces of the panada pound all well together mix in gradually one whole egg two tablespoonfuls of thick cream and the yolks of four more eggs a scant teaspoon full of salt and 1/4 salt spoonful of pepper when this is all pounded into a smooth compact mass put it into a bowl and place it on ice until required for use mould and poach as described in last recipe great care is required in cooking quenelles as if they are overdone they become tough ten minutes is enough for those the size of a small egg before molding the whole poach a small one break it open and ascertain if it is smooth light yet firm they should melt in the mouth if they are at all tough add a little more cream to the mixture unless the toughness comes from over boiling which you must guard against very elaborate Cornell's are made with a core of dark meat made by chopping up ham tongue or truffles very fine and inserting it in the center while forming the quenelle always serve quenelle with tomato mushroom or rich Spanish sauce dish in a circle and fill the center with spinach green peas or method one of mixed vegetables the mode of preparing all quenelle is by one of the two methods just given but they may be made of any kind of game or the backs of hares or rabbits quenelle of salmon lobster or other fish must of course be served with appropriate fish sauce Timm ball of chicken ala Sean P noit's chop a small slice of lean boiled ham weighing about two ounces put into a saucepan with four chopped mushrooms for truffles and an ounce of butter stir in a moderate dessert spoonful of cornstarch and half a pint of stock and a Gill of sherry let this slowly simmer until reduced to 1/2 skim off the fat then stir in the finely chopped rest of a large chicken or of two small ones six small pickled gherkins a sprig of parsley and six anchovies which have been soaked in milk make all hot over a slow fire but do not let them boil line a mold with light puff paste pour the mixture into it and bake one hour turn out and serve very hot garnished with fried parsley scallops of chicken ala Perigord this dish may conveniently be made when the white meat of chicken is required for other purposes bone the legs of two large chickens take half a pound of veal a quarter of a pound of fat salt pork pound both in a mortar then passed through a sieve add to this two tablespoonfuls of minced tongue six truffles and half a dozen button mushrooms the yolks of two eggs a soft spoonful of salt and a very little Cayenne mix well stuff the legs of the fowls with this sewing them up neatly wrap each up and buttered paper put them in a stew pan with two ounces of butter and a carrot turnip and small onion cut up add 3/4 of a pint of brown stock put the stew pan in the oven baste well and cook gently one hour when cooked have ready a mound of spinach take a very sharp knife cut the legs in slices so as to make circles like slices of sausage strain off the gravy cook together a dessert spoonful of butter and flour when they bubble pour the strain gravy to it with a Gill of sherry and a little salt and pepper stir till smooth boil to less thick as cream dress the scallops of chicken in a circle around the spinach pour the sauce around all and insert bits of truffle and of tongue between the scallops chicken souffle found 3 ounces of the white meat of cooked chicken as fine as possible mix with it half a pint of cream and 3 well beaten eggs a few button mushrooms finely chopped a soft spoonful of salt a sixth of one of pepper a dust of cayenne and a speck of powdered mace pour the mixture in a well-buttered mold tie a cloth over it and steam at half an hour it must stand quite upright in the steamer turn out on a hot dish and pour any rich brown sauce preferred around it this souffle may be made of sweetbreads or half-and-half if individual souffles are preferred but are as many darío molds as the mixture will fill lay at the bottom of each something by way of garnish a little star or disk of tongue or ham for some of truffle for others of green gherkin for others so that when turned out the top of the souffles will show spots of color half fill the molds and steam 20 minutes souffles of all kinds depend for excellence on being served moment they are ready and on the steam being kept up all the time they are cooking when baked the oven must be very steady frito of chicken take a cold chicken cut it into small neat joints seasoned rather highly with salt and pepper strew over them a small gradient onion or one very finely chopped and a dessert spoonful of chopped parsley cover them with oil and then squeeze over them the juice of a lemon turn the pieces now and then and let them remain until they have absorbed the flavor meanwhile make a batter of four tablespoonfuls of flour and about eight of milk or as much as will make a thick smooth batter stir into it a wine glass of brandy and an egg the whole beaten to a high fall leave this batter in a warm place an hour before using dip the pieces of chicken into it and fry in very hot deep fat serve piled high on a dish garnished with fried parsley end of chapter 14 chapter 15 of choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Betty bee choice cookery by Katherine Owen chapter fifteen entrees continued cigarette lrn these are the newest development of the Rizzo land croquette they require strict attention to details to secure perfect form roll puff paste a quarter of an inch thick prick it all over this is to deaden it roll it now till it is no thicker than cartridge paper cut it with a sharp knife dipped in flour into strips about two inches and a half wide and about the length of a cigar lay on each strip a roll of chicken quenelle meat that is very firm and the roll not thicker than a lady's slender forefinger be careful that the meat reaches nearly the whole length of the paste yet leaves a margin for closing as the least using will spoil the appearance moisten the edges of the paste all around with white of egg fold the paste over half an inch be very careful to see that it adheres thoroughly then pinch the ends roll them gently with a cool hand on the floured board to round them without pressure taper off the end cigar fashion if they are softening lay them on a floured plate on ice to get firm then roll them an egg and very finely sifted cracker meal you may roll or improve the shape if there is any irregularity while crumbing them remember what you aim to imitate is a cigar the great danger for the first time is getting them too large they must therefore be very slender fry in deep fat just as results serve on a napkin log-house fashion these dainty's as will have been seen have a large amount of butter and soften in a warm room they must therefore be made in a cold room and have set on ice some hours before cooking will be much easier to fry without bending or twisting cigarettes eyelashes or are as the name indicates made of game in exactly the same way as the last recipe lobster quenelle prepare with bread panada as directed for quenelle meat poach and drain them then dish in a circle with thick hollandaise sauce in the center and round them chicken turtle fashion this requires a pullet or young hen about 6 months old bone the bird stuffed with a forcemeat made of four parts minced veal two parts chopped hard inks a half part lean boiled ham two parts mushrooms and two parts pate de foie gras first make the veal and ham hot and a little butter then add the mushrooms and foie gras moisten with stock or mushroom liquor and gently simmer 5 minutes stir in two beaten yolks of eggs and a teaspoon full of lemon juice season with a salt spoonful of salt 1/4 1 of white pepper and a tiny pinch of nutmeg radiant stuff the fowl with this mixture sew it up with trussing needle and string turn the skin of the neck 1/2 over the head and cut off part of the comb which gives the appearance of the turtle's head scald and skin for chickens feet cut off the claws and insert to where the wings ought to be and to in the thighs so as to look like turtles feet put in a stew pan a tablespoonful of chopped boiled ham an onion and a small carrot cut up with a tablespoon full of butter let them Brown very slightly add half a pint of stock skim it lay the fowl in this stock and stew gently for an hour and a half to two hours or even longer according to size when quite tender take up the foul cut and remove the string with which it is some lay it on its back on a dish garnish the breasts with sliced truffles cut in fancy shapes place a crawfish tail to represent the turtles tail when eaten hot serve a loot a sauce this is an excellent dish called garnished with aspic baked ravioli 4 ounces of veal 6 ounces of butter 3 ounces of lean sausage meat a teaspoon full of mixed sweet herbs a little salt and pepper found all in a mortar when smooth pounds separately a gill of spinach that has been boiled till just tender without losing color and 1/4 of a pound of cream cheese or rich cottage cheese which must be squeezed in a cloth to remove all the milk when smooth pound all together and stir in the yolks of two eggs make some pastry with half a pound of butter 3/4 of a pound of flour and the yolks of two eggs mix stiff and roll till about as thick as a 50-cent piece cut the paste in 2 parts take a medium sized biscuit cutter mark half as many circles on 1/2 the paste as you wish ravioli lay in each circle a mound of the forcemeat perhaps a large teaspoonful only be careful to leave a quarter inch margin all round moisten this margin with a camel's hair brush dipped in white of ink laid the second half of the pastry over these mounds press the cutter on each to trim them and you have a number of little round patties press the edges together very well by curving the little finger round them have some rich stock boiling in a stew pan poach the ravioli 5 minutes take them up drain them well arrange them in a fireproof gratin dish sprinkle them over with grated Parmesan cheese pour in a very little stock in baked Brown in the oven veal cutlets alla Primrose take a pound of veal cutlet cut it up into small cutlets the size of a dollar and perfectly round put 2 ounces of butter which has been first melted to let the curd separate into a saucepan with 3 onions 2 ounces of bacon cut into small dice a bouquet of herbs including bay leaf fry stirring frequently for a quarter of an hour then add a tablespoon full of cornstarch a dessert spoonful of tarragon vinegar and a pint of strong stock let all simmer very gently for about 1 hour take up the cutlets strain the gravy and pour it over them then sprinkle with a tablespoon full of grated tongue and the same quantity of parsley dried and crumbled small chicken may also be cooked in this way quails alla lucullus this as its name implies is the most expensive and luxurious way of serving these dainty birds yet by management the livers of chickens may be saved a day or two by scalding them and the opportunity taken when several are required for general use during a week buon very carefully 6 or 8 quails cut up three ounces of unspoken put it in a saute pan let it cook 5 minutes then add the livers a shallot sliced as Bouquet 12 white peppercorns six cloves a soft spoonful of salt let all cook carefully ten minutes nothing must burn or get very Brown when cooked found well in a mortar pass through the sieve then add three truffles chopped stuff each quail into shape butter some paper cases known as quail cases put a quail into each case a few drops of olive oil on each breast then put them in a quick oven for 10 minutes or a quarter of an hour for the gravy put the bones of the quails in a stew pan add a tablespoon full of glaze and a Gill of brown sauce with one tablespoon full of water simmer till the gravy is well flavored from the bones then strain and add two tablespoonfuls of chopped truffles and half a gill of sherry put 1 tablespoon full of this sauce over each quail before sending it to the table after very carefully draining all Greece from the quails these are served in the papers but rough paper cases may be made to bake them in and the regular crimped ones set in the oven to get hot just before dishing up slip the quails into them after draining quail salad Jubilee bone as many birds as required lard them with pork and thin strips of truffles stuffed them in shape with equal parts of sweetbreads and oysters sew them up roll them in buttered paper and cook them in the oven in enough Chablis to cover them pound some boiled potatoes and watercresses together until thoroughly blended put a tablespoon full of butter in a saucepan with one of milk put in the potato stir around till quite hot use this to make a border on which to serve the quails when they have cooked 15 to 20 minutes take them up glaze them melt glaze in a cup standing in hot water and brush them over lay them on the potato border and pour into the center some Spanish sauce with mushrooms in which has been boiled a slice of lemon and after 15 chapter 16 out choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Betty bee choice cookery by Katherine Owen on trace continued pigeon cutlets take half a dozen young pigeons split them down the back and bone them all but the leg cutting off the wings at the second joint cut each bird in two down the breast trim off all ragged edges so that each half bird has as much as possible the appearance of a cutlet the leg serving for the bone sauteed these cutlets having seasoned them with pepper and salt for three minutes in hot butter and put them in the oven for five minutes when done press between two plates till cold then mask each cutlet with a thick puree of tomatoes and mushrooms in which a speck jelly has been mixed equal parts of each let them be put on ice to stiffen the masking role in fine cracker meal then dip into well beaten egg again into the meal and then place them in a saute pan with very hot clarified butter and cook them a fine golden brown dish up on a border of mashed potatoes browned with grated Parmesan serve mushrooms in the center and Spanish sauce all around pigeons a la tartare the pigeon should be trust for broiling flatten well with a rolling pin without breaking the skin season them with pepper and salt dip into clarified butter and cover with very fine crumbs or cracker meal boil them carefully turning often make a sauce of a scant tablespoon full of finely chopped parsley a shallot two spoonfuls of pickled gherkins and a bone anchovy mince all finely and separately squeeze over them the juice of a lemon add 1/2 a tbsp full of water and 6 of oil and a little pepper mix all very well and just before serving rub in a teaspoon full of dry mustard put the sauce into the dish lay the pigeons over and serve compote of pigeons for any dish of pigeons except roast or broiled wild birds may be used in place of tame their flavor is far finer and if not perfectly young which is the main objection to the use of wild birds the preparation remedies the defect cut four ounces of lean unsmoked bacon into pieces and fry five minutes split the pigeons in half skewer each half as neatly as possible with tiny skewers so that they will not sprawl when dished flower and season them lightly and fry a nice brown on both sides add one small carrot one small turnip two sticks of celery one shallot six mushrooms all cut small add a bouquet garni and three gills of rich stock let them all simmer very slowly in a stew pan for one hour or longer if the birds are not young simmer together a tablespoon full of flour and one of butter pepper and salt quantities depend on whether the stop be seasoned stir constantly and when they begin to change color pour a Gill of brown stock to it stirring well remove from the fire take up the pigeons strain the gravy then stir in the brown thickening you have made boil up skim off all fat then return the birds let them get thoroughly hot but not boil serve on a border of mashed potatoes pour the gravy round and over them and fill the center with peas or spinach souffle of partridges clean and cook two partridges remove the breasts and best of the other flesh without skin or sinew take 2 ounces of rice cook till very tender pound them together in a mortar with one ounce of butter and a Gill and a half of glaze melted a teaspoon full of salt and six of pepper pound until the whole can be forced through a strainer then add the beaten yolks of four eggs and last of all the whites of two beaten till they will not slip from the dish stir them very lightly into the mixture pour it into a silver souffle case or into a number of the small China cases bake till it rises and then serve immediately with a terrine of rich brown sauce this souffle can be made of any kind of cold bird or fish the four eggs are given four medium-sized partridges Salmi up snipe clean and roast lightly 6 snipe saving the trail when done let them get cold then cut them up and remove the skin and lay them in a buttered stew-pan pound the trimmings and bones in a mortar and put them into a stew pan with two shallots a clove a bouquet of herbs and half a pint of claret let this simmer until reduced to 1/2 then add 3/4 of a pint of Spanish sauce let these very gently simmer for half an hour strain through a fine sieve and return to the stew pan if it is not thick enough to coat the spoon reduce a little more pour the sauce over the snipe in the saute pan and let it get hot without boiling pile the pieces in a pyramid meanwhile chop the trail mix with half the quantity of pate de foie gras and a little salt and pepper spread this on croutons bake and use them to garnish the snipe fillet of teal with anchovies remove the breasts from a pair of teal after they have been three parts roasted take care to preserve each half breast in good shape lay these fillets seasoned in a China fireproof dish which has been well buttered and strewed with grated Parmesan split two anchovies remove the bone wash and dry the four halves lay one on each fillet of teal moisten with a Gill of fish stock sprinkle with breadcrumbs and grated Parmesan cheese lay small pieces of butter over and bake in the oven 15 minutes the last thing before serving squeeze the juice of a lemon overall rabbits are so little cared for in this country that it may seem useless to give recipes for using them there are probably two reasons for the low estimate in which rabbit is held here one that as they are offered in market they are skinny miserable animals yet there are parts of the country where they attain a good size and a fine plump rabbit may compare favorably with fowl for many purposes indeed English epicures use it in preference for mulligatawny the second reason and probably the one that is the real reason for the difference in taste is because being so lightly esteemed no care is ever given to the preparation of them on the chance that some reader may feel inclined to test the possibilities of the native rabbit and its claims to a place and choice cookery I give two or three recipes each admirable in its way rabbits should be used quite fresh and clean and wipe dry as soon after they are killed as possible Grenadines of rabbit Alice ooby's take the whole backs of two rabbits from the shoulders to the thighs both of which you reject cut away the ribs and the thin part that forms the stomach leaving only the backbone with solid flesh each side divide this into sections about two joints to each lar them and then braised for one hour stand them in a circle and pour over and round them a pint of brown soubise sauce fillets of rabbit with cucumber half roast a rabbit then remove the solid flesh from each side of the backbone in long fillets cut two cucumbers and one Bermuda onion in thin slices salt them and let them drain lard the fillets of rabbit season them and lay them in a stew pian with a pint of white sauce slightly thin with white stock the cucumber and the onion let them simmer for half an hour lay the fillets in a circle and put the cucumber and onion in the center the sauce which should be thick enough to mask them over the fillets Frye exhibits garnish this dish a civet for this dish the dark fleshed rabbit or hare as it is often called is best cut it into meat joints cut half a pound of unsmoked bacon into slices and fry in a saucepan then lay in the hare and saute for 15 minutes pour off the fat add half a pineapple wine a bouquet garni and a dozen mushrooms and a little pepper and salt let this simmer gently 1 hour then add a pint of brown sauce and 20 button onions which have been blanched simmer for another half hour remove the bouquet at a Gill of stewed and strained tomato half a gill of glaze and a tablespoon full of chutney serve in a pyramid pour the gravy after it is well skimmed over the hole and garnish with fried croutons Tim Balz de peen yard make some quenelle meat of chicken or veal according to directions already given and mix with puree of spinach prepared as follows until it is a nice green pick and wash some spinach put it into salted boiling water and boil fast for 15 minutes drain and press it then beat it through a wire sieve return to the saucepan with 2 ounces of butter pepper and salt stir till well mixed stir a Gill of cream to the quenelle meat then use enough of the spinach to give it a fine light green color when well mixed butter some Dario moulds nearly fill them then dip your finger in cold water and press a hole in the center of each to the bottom fill it with a puree of ham and then put a coating of quenelle meat over and steamed 20 minutes puree of ham is prepared as follows pound lean boiled ham in a mortar with some stock that has been boiled down to 1/2 glaze rub through a wire sieve if too stiff moisten with a little more melted glaze end of chapter 16 chapter 17 of choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Betty bee choice cookery by Katherine Owen chapter seventeen called entree or showed flaw these elegant dishes are suitable for formal breakfasts luncheons and suppers and while presenting an unusually attractive appearance are easier to manage than less elaborate dishes because they can usually be prepared all but garnishing the day before although in giving the recipes neat cook for this purpose will always be directed and for formal purposes no care or expense should be spared the intelligent reader will see where she may make a very pretty dish by utilizing cold foul game or lamb for any simple occasion sweetbreads Oh Montpelier parboil a pair of fine white sweetbreads after soaking them in salt and water an hour let them get cold between two plates under slight pressure cut them into the form of cutlets cutlet cutters are to be obtained at the fashionable New York hardware stores and at the large French tin shops downtown have some firm aspic jelly not quite set dip each cutlet in it chop some aspect that is hard and cold roughly form a circle of it arrange the cutlets on this fill the center with asparagus heads pour mayonnaise round and garnish with fancy shapes of aspic red and white alternately red aspic is colored with pulp of the red beet stirred into it while liquid and then strained out Green is produced by spinach the various shades of amber shading into rich Brown that are so effective when tastefully mingled are due to caramel coloring when colored aspic is required for garnishing pour off a little into separate vessels and color each as required chicken salad a la Prince the white meat of cold fell into neat fillets using a very sharp knife so that there may be no ragged edges mask each piece with the mixture made as follows one tablespoon full of finely minced capers two of minced boiled ham three hard-boiled eggs an anchovy boned and washed and two sardines freed from skin all these must be well pounded then rubbed through a synth add a teaspoonful of finely minced tarragon and chives stir all into a tablespoon full of mayonnaise and one an aspic semi fluid of course when each fillet has been well coated with the mixture and has set Linna boarder mold with a speck jelly ornament the fillets of chicken with little strips of beetroot and cucumber arranged like a trellis work place them very carefully round the mold on the layer of aspic then pour in a little more aspect until the border mold is full and set it on ice when about to serve have a dish well layered with the small leaves of lettuce drop the mold for one minute in warm water and turn out on to the lettuce fill the center with the salad composed of cucumber cut into dice peas string beans cooked until tender for this purpose the canned French string beans serve admirably being beautifully cut ready pour over the center salad some thick minis where mayonnaise makes too rich a dish for the digestion bechamel sauce may be substituted for masking but never for salad for instance – very simple showed foie of chicken may be made as followed showed foie of chicken number one cut up a young fleshy chicken into neat joints remove the skin and ask each piece carefully with bechamel sauce when quite said arrange on chopped aspect in a circle garnished with strips of cucumber and beet cut the remainder of the cucumber and beet into neat pieces and stir into a Gill of mayonnaise and used for the center this and all salad should be lightly seasoned before the mayonnaise is added or there apt to taste flat showed foie of chicken number to prepare the chicken as in last recipe only before masking the joints season them bechamel well with finely chopped tarragon leave out the mayonnaise in aspic pile up the pieces of chicken on the entrée dish and garnish with Roman lettuce or if that is not to be had the hearts of Boston lettuce chicken and ham cutlets while a young fell with a good breast and clear stock take it out let it get cold cut the breast in two rather thin slices the bone skin and trimmings may be thrown back in the stock which can be boiled down to make both the bechamel and a speck for the dish see recipes or be kept for other purposes take the slices of chicken and some very well-cooked lean ham that is cut so thin you can see the knife under the slices melt a little béchamel sauce that must be like Blanc Mull Sh pour it on a plate and before it has time to cool cover the plate with a slices of chicken dip the ham into the stock if it has been boiled down to jelly otherwise into melted aspic lay them over the chicken then more thin slices of chicken now cover the hole by means of a spoon with more bechamel when all this sets which as your sauce has only been half melted it will do quickly you have a large white cake about half an inch thick cut this cake into small pieces unless you have a cutlet cutter as like a cutlet inform as possible using a sharp pen knife or boning knife take up each carefully and with the end of a silver knife or small spoon cover the edges with the bechamel sauce which must be nearly set for this purpose to garnish the cutlets cut some tiny green leaves from pickled gherkins and red ones from the skin of a red pepper pod and place two of each in the center of each cutlet star-shaped a touch of white sauce will make them stick place the speck of parsley not larger than a pins head in the center stick a tiny lobster claw 3/4 of an inch long at the narrow end of the and place them in a silver dish round some a speck of a bright amber color chopped put a very small sprig of parsley between each cutlet I may here remind the reader that when a spec or bechamel is used for masking or for pouring into a mould as lining etc it must not be made hot only softened in a bowl set in warm water just enough to be free from lumps it must of course be stirred from the moment it begins to soften the mall to be lined should be turned about till it is well coated and if there is a disposition to run off the size roll it round in ice for instance when the first layer of bechamel is poured on the plate as directed in last recipe it must be moved about until quite covered yet very thinly if it sets too soon hold the bottom of the plate over steam read birds in aspic take the back and breastbone from a dozen birds splitting them down the back first save the feet make a forcemeat of pate de foie gras and panada in equal proportions seasoned highly spread the inside of the birds sew them up is nearly in shape as possible bake seven to ten minutes then dip them into glaze put a little pale a speaking a dozen dairy old molds enough to cover the bottom a quarter of an inch and when just set put in a bird breast down set on ice a few minutes then pour in aspic to cover the bird a quarter of an inch put on ice turnout and on the top of each strew pistachio nuts chopped very fine insert the two feet of the bird scalded and dried to stand up from the center showed foie of rebirths prepares and last recipe with pate de foie gras forcemeat butter a dozen darriel moulds put a bird in each breast downward put the dairy all molds in a pan with a little water and set it in the oven for 15 minutes when cold turn out the birds wipe them dip each and brown should floss sauce and put them on a dish to cool when cold lay the Monroes against a pile of chopped aspic Brown showed frost sauce is made by putting a pint of Spanish sauce a Gill of cream half a pint of aspic jelly together and boiling them until they are reduced 1/4 skim constantly and strained for use white showed frost sauce is simply béchamel and aspic treated in the same way it differs of course from plain bechamel in having the piquant flavor of the aspect in appearance there is little difference end of chapter 17 chapter 18 of choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by betty be choice cookery by Katherine Owen chapter 18 cold entrees iced savory souffle this dish can be made of fish game or chicken but is considered best made of crab cut up the crab or whatever it may be into small pieces let it soak in mayonnaise sauce for 2 or 3 hours have some well flavored aspic jelly half liquid whip it till it is very frothy put some of this at the bottom of the dish it is to be served in a silver one is most effective then place a layer of crab well seasoned and fill it up with aspic and crab alternately until the dish is nearly full place a band of stiff paper round and fill it with whipped aspic set it on ice for two hours take off the paper and serve savories within the last few years which may perhaps be called the renaissance of cooking in England since Kettner in his book of the table shows that in the Middle Ages that country was famous for its cuisine while France was still benign in within the last few years then there has grown up a fashion of introducing preparations called hermès they vary very much from the tiny little boo shet of something very piquant to be taken between courses as an appetizer which I believe was the original idea to quite important dishes suitable as entrees for formal breakfasts or suppers but it is with the original savory as the piquant mouthful that they will take their place in this book so important apart have they come to play in English menus I am NOT now speaking of simple dinners that the invention of a new savory is something to be proud of and it is said that the very best are invented by the bon vivant themselves seldom by the chef one lady has written a book of which savories is the only branch of cooking treated and she says in her preface savories being at present so fashionable and novelties in them so eagerly inquired for I have been induced to publish a small book on the subject in looking over any list of small savories we find many of our old friends in it such as cheese canapes angels on horseback anchovy toast etc with these familiar dainty's we will have nothing to do only the mention of them will serve to show that any little pecan morsel may be used as an appetizer served as hors d'oeuvre the savage Club canapes these must be made small enough not to require dividing in other words can be eaten at one mouthful cut slices of stale Vienna bread a quarter of an inch thick stamp out from them with a very small cutter circles about the size of a 50-cent piece saute these and a little hot butter till they are a very pale Brown lay them on paper when done to absorb grease stone as many small olives as you have guests filet half as many small anchovies that is to say split them and remove the bones and scales wash them dry them and roll each one up as small as possible and insert it in an olive in place of the stone now trim one end of the so that it will stand then put a drop of thick mayonnaise on the center of one of the rounds of fried bread which of course must be quite cold Sam the stuffed olive on it neatly and put one drop of mayonnaise on the top to cover the opening in the olive a variation and I think an improvement on this boucher is to use a little softened aspect to attach the olive and a small quantity finely chopped to Crown it still another plan is to put a tiny disc of bright red beet on the top using aspect to cement it there kena paella Bismarck cut circles with a small cutter from slices of stale bread a quarter of an inch thick saute in butter till they are a light brown spread over each when cold a thin layer of anchovy butter curl round on each and anchovy well washed boned and trimmed sprinkle very finely shred olives over them anchovy butter is two parts butter and one of anchovy paste caviar canapes cut some slices of bread a quarter of an inch thick cut discs from them with a small round cutter fry them pale brown in butter when about to use them chop a large handful of watercress leaves very fine taking care to press them in a cloth to remove all water before you begin to chop when they are almost as fine as pulp mix with them an equal amount of butter when well blended spread each can of pain with it and spread a layer of caviar on the top prawns also priests cut some small rounds of bread and butter not more than two inches in diameter and a quarter inch thick peel some prawns steep them in mayonnaise sauce a few minutes place three on each round of bread and butter with a small piece of watercress on each place overall some whipped aspic jelly strew Lobster quarrel over them Prince of Wales canapes take some fine prawns three anchovies two gherkins and two truffles bone the anchovies and wash them peel the prawns and then cut all the ingredients into very small dice make a sauce as follows brews a hard-boiled yolk of egg in a mortar with a tablespoon full of salad oil a salt spoonful of mustard mix with this an anchovy and a teaspoon full of tarragon that has been scalded and chopped pound all well together and passed through a sieve with a teaspoon full of tarragon vinegar and a speck of cayenne mix enough of this with the prawns etc to season the mixture salt it will be observed is not mentioned because the anchovies and prawns may be salt but this can only be known to the cook by tasting but are some small water biscuits crackers put a small teaspoon full of the mixture on each and cover with finely chopped aspect garnished by putting a spot of green gherkin on one a spot of red bead on another and on a third one of truffle and so on alternately shrimp canapes fry some rounds of bread is directed for other canapes make some shrimp butter by pounding equal quantities of shrimps from which heads tails and shells have been removed ends fresh butter till they form a smooth mass spread the fried bread with it place whole shrimps on the top in the shape of a rosette in the center of which put a tiny pinch of chopped parsley cheese biscuits a la st. James take three tablespoonfuls of the finest flour half a pound of cream curds and five ounces of brie cheese which has been carefully scraped and a pinch of salt found all in a mortar add five ounces of softened butter and three eggs to make a very stiff paste which must be rolled very thin and cut into round biscuits bake in a very quick oven and serve hot Huskies of cream cheese take half a pound of fresh butter 6 eggs 6 tablespoonfuls of cream cheese a pinch of powdered sugar salt and sufficient graded bread crumbs to make a paste adding cream if it crumbles mix well together and roll into small balls poach them in boiling water until firm no longer serve hot with a spoonful of poivre sauce on each cold cheese soufflés great one and a half ounces of Gruyere cheese the same of parmesan with half a pint of cream and a gill of aspic jelly to a high froth stir in the cheese season with salt cayenne and made mustard to taste fill little paper baskets or very small ramekin cases grate cheese over the top and set on ice – get firm the above mixture may be frozen just as you would ice cream but very firm then cut out in little cubes and serve on canapes of fried bread it is then called croute – fromage glass a oysters a la st. George take the beards from two dozen oysters put the melt or soft row of two Yarmuth bloaters into a saute pan with two ounces of butter dry and flour the oysters and saute them with the melt have some squares of bread fried a nice light brown place a nice piece of the melt on each square and an oyster on top squeeze a few drops of lemon juice on each and serve very hot al you met for these fantastic little trifles you require anchovies preserved in oil not insult they are found at all Italian groceries and at the larger American grocer's wife them free from scales and oil cut each into long thin strips have ready some plain pastry rolled very thin envelop each strip of anchovy and pastry pinch closely so that it will not burst open and fry and very hot fat for about half a minute or saute them in butter till crisp and yellow serve lockhouse fashion using – al you meant for each crossing instead of one put fried parsley in the corners and serve very hot eggs a la st. James take as many eggs as you have guests and boil them hard and buttered dairy all molds the moles must be large enough to hold the egg when broken into it not much larger when quite cold remove the eggs slice off the white at one end of each taking care to preserve the shape scoop out the yolk mix this with a teaspoon full of chopped truffles a little pepper and salt and put it back very neatly into the whites coat the eggs with a speck jelly several times serve them upside down that is the uncut part upward put a spoonful of half mayonnaise mayonnaise mixed with whipped cream on each and a few specks of chopped truffle a variety of this dish has anchovy paste in very small quantity in place of truffle and the mayonnaise just made pink with it end of chapter 18 chapter 19 of choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Betty bee choice cookery by Katherine Owen chapter 19 gallon teens ballotines etc gallon teens are so useful and handsome a dish in a large family or one where many visitors are received that it is well worth while to learn the art of boning birds in order to achieve them nor if the amateur cook is satisfied with the unambitious mode of boning hereafter to be described need the achievement be very difficult experts bone a bird whole without breaking the skin but to accomplish it much practice is required and even where it is desirable to preserve the shape of the bird as when it is to be braised or roasted and glazed for serving cold it can be managed with care if boned the easier way however if nice white milk-fed veal can be obtained a very excellent Galentine may be made from it and to my mind to be preferred to fowl because as a matter of fact when boned there is such a thin sheet of meat that it but serves covering for the forced meet very often sausage me and although it makes a savory and handsome dish it really is only glorified sausage meat much easier to produce in some other way this is of course not the case with turkey but a bone turkey is so large a dish that a private family might find it too much except for special occasions on the other hand galentine's of game although the birds may be still smaller are so full of flavor that it overwhelms that of the dressing the following process of boning however applies to all birds to accomplish the work with ease and success a French bony knife is desirable but in the absence of one a sharp pointed case knife may do place the bird before you press down with the head towards you cut a straight line down the back through skin and flesh to the bone release with the left thumb and forefinger the skin and flesh on the left side nearest to you and with the right hand keep cutting away the flesh from the bone pulling it away clear as it is cut with the left hand when you reach the wind joint cut it clean away leaving the bone in the wing and continue cutting with the knife close to the bone until all the meat from the left breast is released return to the back and continue to separate the meat from the bone always keeping the edge of the knife pressed close to the ladder until the leg is reached twist it round which will enable you to get the skin over it and cut the joint from the body bone proceed with the right side in the same way using your left hand for cutting and your right to free the meat to sum this would be very awkward and when it is so turn the bird round the bird will now be clear of the carcass lay the bird flat on the board inside upward then cut out the wing bone and proceed to the legs cut the meat on the inside of each thigh down to the bone and clear the meat from it cutting in each side until you can lift the bone out then free the drumstick in the same way if it be intended to stuff the bird in form it would be necessary to bone the leg and wings from the inside but for a Galentine it is useless trouble as they are to be drawn inside the bird spread out the bird having drawn legs and wings inside season with a teaspoon full of salt and half a salt spoonful of white pepper mixed together and rubbed over the flesh which must have been made as even as possible by cutting the thick parts and spreading them over the thin ones if there are any bits of meat clinging to the bones they must be carefully gathered together and chopped with a pound of veal and two ounces of lean cold boiled ham with four ounces of fat sweet salt pork butter may be substituted if pork is objected to when all is chopped as fine a sausage meat seasoned rather highly with pepper and salt spread a layer an inch thick over the bird then adds some long strips of tongue some black truffles cut into dice half an inch square and a few pistachio nuts dispose these which may be called the ornamental adjuncts of the Galentine judiciously so that when cut cold they will be well distributed cover carefully with another layer of forcemeat fold both sides over so that the forcemeat will be well enclosed form it into a bolster shaped roll tie it up in a linen cloth securely with string at each end and sew the cloth evenly along the middle so that the shape will keep even put it into a stew pan with stock enough to cover it 2 onions 2 carrots sliced a stick of celery a small bunch of parsley a dozen peppercorns an ounce of salt and the bones of the bird well cracked let it simmer gently for 3 hours and a half take it up strain the liquor and let the Galentine get nearly cold take off the cloth wring it quite dry put it on again rolling the Galentine as tight as possible tie firmly and place it on a platter cover with another platter and place a heavyweight upon it to press it into shape let the stock get cold take off the grease add 1/2 teaspoonful of sugar and the juice of a quarter of a lemon to the stock and reduced by rapid boiling to a half glaze that is to say a jelly firm enough to cut into forms without being tough Claire with white of egg in the usual way and when quite transparent pour part into shallow dishes leaving enough to cover the Galentine color one dish a rich clear brown leave the rest light when the jelly thickens but is not quite set cover the Galentine with a half an inch thick when the jelly is cold cut it into what are called croutons which may mean VanDyke two strips to be laid across triangles squares or any fancy shapes the pieces and trimmings are chopped to scatter over the dish or lay in small piles round ballotines are small galentine's made by treating small birds as directed in last recipe only that the forcemeat should have a larger proportion of truffles and be made of the same kind of bird for instance Grouse would have rich forst meat of grouse one grouse however would make two or four ballotines quails make two to be served as individuals Galentine abreast a veal bone a breast of young white veal very carefully spread it out as flat as possible on the board pare the meat at the ends for about an inch so that the skin may project beyond take all the scraps of meat that may have come from boning provided they are not sinewy take also 12 ounces of veal cutlet and half the quantity of fat unsmoked bacon chopped very fine seasoning all rather highly when the meat is fine season the inside of the veal mix with a forcemeat tongue truffles and pistachio nuts or olives all cut into half-inch dice the tongue larger so mix these that they will come at regular intervals through the stuffing roll the breast round the stuffing which not spread but laid in a mess and so the veal together fasten it up in a cloth tie securely at the ends then tie bands of tape round and intervals to keep it in shape braces galantine for six hours in stock which may be made of a small knuckle of veal and the bones and trimmings vegetables as directed for chicken galantine let the galantine be called before it is untied garnished and glazed as directed for chicken galantine is occasionally made of suckling pig and is very popular in France the pig must be carefully boned all but the head and feet a sufficient quantity of veal of fat unsmoked bacon and of bread punana must be chopped and pounded to make enough force meat to stuff the pig in the proportion of one part bacon to panada and three a veal seasoned with a teaspoon full of onion juice and to a powdered sugar the pig's liver must have been boiled in stock and cut in dice there must be fillets or strips of rabbit or chicken a few chopped truffles and olives mix well lay in the fillets as you stuff the pig and when full sew up the opening try to keep the shape as near as possible then braise slowly for four to five hours as directed for Galentine of veal do not remove the cloth till it is cold end of chapter 19 chapter 20 of choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Betty bee choice cookery by Katherine Owen had a filet cold Game pies I have spoken several times a fileting to some readers and explanation of the term may be necessary to cut up a bird does not indicate the meaning nor does the term to carve it do so because 2-car means to cut up or divide with an exact observe of joints and cuts filleting when applied to anything without bones as the breasts of a bird or bone fish means to cut into very neat strips that are thicker than slices but when you are directed to fillet a grouse or a chicken it is intended that you should cut it into small neat portions regardless of joints and without the least mangling of it therefore a very sharp knife must be used and either a small sharp cleaver or a large cook's knife only to be employed when a bone has to be cut through to fillet cooked birds grouse pheasants or poultry cut the bird in half straight down the middle of the breastbone using a large sharp knife for the purpose they each half on the table and take out the breastbone from either side if the bird is a large fowl duck or partridge each breast will make three fillets and leave a good piece with the wing but average birds only make two breast fillets chopped off the pinions within an inch of the meat then cut the wing into neatly drumsticks are to be chopped off close to the meat and divide it into two fillets if a large chicken or duck leave gamehole cut the thigh in two also trim very neatly leave no hanging skin indeed when filleting for showed flop the skin should be entirely removed and both it and the leg bones are removed for pies when possible it is better not to use the drumsticks from a chicken they make an admirable devil and from game they help the bones and trimmings to make a rich gravy so it is no waste to discard them cold pies are of two kinds the one cooked in a terrine or dish without pastry the other and what the English call a raised paste and the French a pot showed those with paste which is seldom eaten or far handsomer but do not keep so well that is to say they must be eaten within three or four days even in winter while in a terrine carefully kept in a cool area place the pie will be good at the end of three weeks on the other and the pie in a terrine is much less trouble to make proceed as follows game pie make some force meat thus fry a quarter of a pound of fat ham cut in dice with half a pound of lean veal take the ham up before it gets brown as you do not need it crisp when the veal is cooked take that up also and if there is enough of the ham fat in the pan put in half a pound of calves liver cut up in dice if not sauté it in butter in sauteing all these they must be often stirred as you want them well-cooked and yet not very Brown when done they must be finely chopped then pounded in a mortar with a small teaspoon full of salt and half a soft spoonful of pepper then add a dozen mushrooms chopped and mix the whole a game pie is usually made rather large and the greater variety of game used the better cartridge pheasant grouse hare all help one another but at least two kinds are necessary it must be boned and neatly filleted into small joints put on all the bones and trimmings to stew in three pints of water with a good-sized carrot onion a stick of celery a small bouquet a clove a teaspoon full of sugar one of salt and a little pepper we'll all this until the bones look white and dry went out of the stock string and reduced by rapid boiling to a half glaze put a layer of the forcemeat at the bottom of the dish then one a boned game with a sprinkling of pepper and salt and either a little finely chopped parsley or what is far better a few thin slices of truffles pour over a little of the reduced stock fill the dish in this way to within an inch of the top make a plain flour and water paste lay it on the pie and make a hole in the center bake slowly in a pan of hot water when cold remove the paste cover the top with chopped aspect fold a napkin and serve the terrine on it with a wreath of parsley round the base game pie is not a dish to be eaten at one or even two meals unless very small therefore the aspect must be fresh each time it is served French method of making a game pie or pot showed make a paste of two pounds of flour and one of lard or butter with salt to taste and about half a pint of water knead it into a smooth rather hard paste put it into a damp napkin for an hour butter a raised pie dish a tin one that opens to release the pie line it with the paste rolled half an inch thick letting it come half an inch above the dish line the inside of the paste with buttered paper bottom and sides and filled with rice or cornmeal cover with another piece of buttered paper wet the top of the pastry all round and lay a cover of thin pastry over it trim very neatly make a hole of the center an ornament with leaves cut from the paste and laid on the underside should be slightly moistened to make them adhere brush the surface with well beaten egg and bake about an hour when it should be a nice golden brown take off the cover after it has slightly cooled removed the rice or meal and the buttered paper take the case from the mould and brush it all over with egg inside and out set it in the oven until the glazing dries in any part that may not be sufficiently brown becomes the color of the cover which being glazed at first is not returned to the oven preparation for filling the case filet chicken's guinea hens partridges or grouse leave pigeons or quails whole but bone them put sufficient pieces of one sort where all sorts mixed to fill the putt showed case into a saute pan with two ounces of butter and saute till lightly colored take them out and put them in a stew pan with a quart of reduced consomme half a pint of mushrooms sliced a dozen truffles cut into dice half inch a teaspoon full of salt a little pepper and a wine glass of sherry and let them simmer very gently not boil for half an hour or until very tender let them cool and when lukewarm arrange them in the pot case leaving the center Hollow which fill with mushrooms and truffles the liqueur in which they were stood must be then poured over them the cover of a pot showed case is often not used and aspic jelly covers the top of the pie English manner of making game pie in a crust use at least two kinds of game which for this purpose must not be long kept high game is acceptable to epicures when roasted or stewed but never in a pie discard all parts blackened by shot cut into neat joints from which bones must be removed take all the fragments from the carcass after the breasts and joints are removed and the flesh of a small bird or here or feeling that some calves liver fried in dice pound whichever you may have for force meat in a mortar with four ounces of bacon that has been boiled when the hole forms a paste from which you have removed all strings sinew or gristle while pounding seasoned with pepper and salt a teaspoon full of salt – a pound of force me and a scant half Saul spoonful of pepper put on the bones without vegetables in cold water to simmer until it is a rich broth which strain and boil rapidly till a little set on ice in a saucer will jelly make what is called raised paste in the following way – 2 pounds of flour use 3/4 of a pound of butter and half a pint of scalding milk pour this into a hole in the center of the flour and knead into a firm paste adding a little more milk if necessary but it seldom is this paste is not to be rolled but beaten out with the hand while warm to half an inch thickness line a well-buttered meat pie mould with a hinge opening at the side leave half an inch of paste above the mold trim off neatly with scissors then lay in the game and force me in alternate layers seasoning the joints with pepper and salt as you lay them a few slices of tongue and truffles to form one layer our desire when the mold is full lay on the cover moisten the under edge and pinch around in tiny scallops make a hole in the center round which put an ornament stick in a bone to prevent the hole closing in bake 2 to 4 hours in a moderate oven according to size remembering always that the crust will not be injured by long baking and that the game in this pie is uncooked when it is removed from the oven let it stand half an hour taking the mold off that it may cool then brush the sides and top with an egg beaten with milk and return the pie to the oven that the sides may Brown cover the top if it is already highly colored with a sheet of paper remove the bone from the center insert a small funnel and after removing all fat from it pour in the gravy from the bones the gravy must be poured very slowly or it will bubble up and care must be taken to have all the pie will hold yet not a drop too much or it will ooze somewhere these pies when quite cold may be sent any distance and are much used in England and Scotland for hunting parties besides being a standard breakfast and luncheon dish the crust is merely a frame to hold the game end of chapter 20 chapter 21 of choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Betty bee choice cookery by Katherine Owen chapter 21 garnishes in all choice cookery the appearance of dishes has to be carefully studied however good the taste may be the effect will be spoiled of its appearance on the table does not come up to the expectation raised by the name on the menu for this reason the subject of garnishes requires to be considered apart from the dishes they adorned in the old-time garnishes were few and simple and when not simple very ugly as the camellias cut from turnips and stained with beet juice nowadays garnishes are many and many so termed form part of the dish as what are termed floating garnishes for soup quenelles etc garnishes that are merely ornamental need not be so expensively made as those intended for eating foremost among fashionable floating garnishes for soup are the coloured custards known as pate Royale they are perfectly easy to make yet very effective served in clear bullion coloured custard prepare the custard with five yolks of eggs a Gill of cream or strong bullion and a pinch of salt but her small saucers or cups divide the custard in three color one with spinach juice or pulp of green asparagus another with red tomato pulp or the pulp of red carrot boiled and a third with pulp of beets a few drops of co-channel may be added to intensify the color of the last which is apt to be a beautiful pink instead of red the custard for which pulps are used must be strained after they are added expressing as much of the juice as possible the custard should be flavored delicately with the vegetable used for color spinach juice is very frequently directed to be used as coloring but scarcely any where is any indication given that the juice without preparation is a very little use it should be prepared as follows take a large handful of fresh green spinach wash it and remove decayed leaves only drain well then pound in a mortar or chopping bowl until quite meshed let it stand a quarter of an hour then squeeze the mass in a cloth and put the green water into a cup which set over the fire in a small saucepan of water watch the scum rise when it stands quite thick at the top and turns a vivid green remove at once if it remains on the fire after this the green darkens for the contents of the cup through cheesecloth or thin muslin laid in a strainer the scum that remains is your colouring matter it must be carefully scraped off with a spoon and mixed with the custard only as much as is required to give the delicate green tint if any is left it may be mixed with an equal quantity of salt and put away it loses color however after a few days the colored custards must be set in water a small piece of buttered paper over each and the water allowed to boil gently round them till they are firm let them get quite cold then cut them into cubes or diamonds profiteroles perhaps the next in popularity of these floating garnishes are profiteroles or profits roles as cooks call them they are made exactly like those intended for dessert omitting sweetening of course and a very small quantity is required as they must be dropped no larger than a pea and baked a pale fawn color put a Gill of water and a pinch of salt and two ounces of butter in a small saucepan as soon as they begin to boil draw the saucepan back and stir in four ounces of flour beat well over the fire with a wooden spoon until it becomes a soft paste then add the yolks of two eggs and white of one beating each yolk in separately it will be seen that the paste is similar to that made for cream cakes a similar garnish is made in the following way beat an egg with a pinch of salt and then stir in as much dry sifted flour as the egg will moisten work it well with the hands till it is elastic although stiff roll it on a pastry board until it is as thin as paper then roll it on a clean linen cloth still thinner and leave it a quarter of an hour to dry and fold the paste press it very tightly together and with the chin cylinder not larger in diameter than ascent cut out with considerable pressure as many small disks as you require to allow five or six – each plate of soup have ready in a small saucepan some smoking hot lard drop the disks in they will puff and swell until they are like marbles stir them and take them out of the fat they require only a few seconds to brown and must be taken out very pale add to the soup the last thing for serving while aspic jelly is certainly the handsomest of garnishes for cold dishes it is generally part of the food itself and should not be so lavishly used that when helped there's more jelly than meat served where the jelly is intended only for a garnish not to be eaten simple gelatin is sufficient for instance a large platter containing a galantine or a showed foie may have a handsome wreath glued on the border of red and green leaves or holly leaves and red berries or any device that need not be disturbed by the Carver for such decorations as these gelatin is melted in proportion of three ounces to a scant quart of water cleared with white of egg and then colored pale yellow with caramel or saffron vivid red with co chenille and bright green with spinach it saved time in trouble to let this congeal on dishes and thin sheets small cutters of ivy oak and other leaves can readily be purchased at the large house furnishing stores one word here about unedible decorations never admit them at a children's party they are the very part of the feast the little people will most crave red leaves for them must be of red currant jelly yellow of white etc forced butter is another form of garnish which adds much to the appearance of glazed ham or tongue it is butter beaten to a white cream then put in a for sir and a pattern traced on the ham which must be allowed just as in icing a cake a few ways of cooking vegetables it is not intended to go into the general cooking of vegetables although it may be said that even the choices cooking can offer no greater luxury or lasts a greater rarity than a dish of early peas or asparagus perfectly cooked but this is not the place to remedy the wholesale spoiling of summer vegetables that goes on in almost every kitchen I will only give what may be a few new ways of preparing familiar vegetables stuffed artichokes wash the artichokes boil till nearly tender drain them remove the middle leaves and chokes this is the fibrous part realm the bass lay in each a little rich forst me and put them in the oven to cook until the meat is done serve with rich brown gravy fried artichokes cut in slices lengthwise remove the chokes cut off the tops of the leaves wash them in vinegar and water drain them and dip them in frying batter fry in very hot oil or lard served with fried parsley sprinkled with salt beet root fritters cut boiled beets and slices slice raw onions scald them dry them well then lay one slice of onion sprinkled with chopped chervil pepper and salt between two slices of beet dip them carefully in frying batter and plunge into boiling fat when pale brown take them up cauliflower fritters parboil the cauliflower that is to say boil until it begins to be tender about 15 minutes then plunge it into ice-cold water this keeps it white break it up into branches dip each one into thick bechamel sauce slightly warmed let them get cold then take each piece separately and dip it into carefully made frying batter and drop them into boiling lard fry a pale brown and serve garnished with fried parsley end of chapter 21 chapter 22 of choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Betty bee choice cookery by Katherine Owen chapter 22 various ways of serving vegetables stuffed cucumbers cut large sized young cucumbers into slices about two inches thick rejecting the ends peel and remove the seeds scald the slices for 10 minutes plunge them into cold water and drain them line a fireproof china dish with very thin slices of unsmoked bacon which has been scalded make some veal forcemeat such as erected for gala teens fill the holes in the center of the rings of cucumber till it is level with the surface on both sides wrap each up in a slice of bacon broad enough to cover it tie round with a string pour a pint of strong stock into the dish and bake 20 minutes in a slow oven when done take up the cucumber drain and remove the bacon carefully so as not to disturb the stuffing lay in a dish and serve with Roberts sauce in the following recipes the mushrooms to be used are the large flap once when canned ones will serve the fact will be stated mushrooms stuffed a la lucullus wash dry and trim large mushrooms chopped up the stalks and broken once fine with a teaspoonful of minced parsley pepper salt and a tomato make these hot in a tablespoon full of butter fill the mushrooms with the mixture place them on a buttered baking dish and bake 6 minutes basting them once or twice with clarified butter mushrooms and tomatoes toast some slices of bread cut them into rounds 2 inches in diameter and butter them peel some firm tomatoes cut them into thick slices and lay them on the toast on the top of each place a peeled mushroom put them on a dish that can go to table pour a little clarified butter over them put them in a hot oven for 3 minutes and baste well serve hot and quickly mushroom jelly take 2 pounds of mushrooms put them in a stew pan over the fire with a Gill of strong consomme squeeze in a few drops of lemon juice add a little pepper and salt unless the consomme was salt enough melt in a Gill of water half an ounce of gelatin and strain it when the mushrooms are quite soft pass them through a sieve mixed with the gelatin and pour the mixture into a mold which has been rinsed with water when set turned out and garnished with finely chopped aspic and a few cherry tomatoes if in season mushroom baskets make some puff paste roll it out very thin line some small suitably shaped moles Dario's will do very nicely fill the center with uncooked rice or flour to keep the shape while baking cut some strips of paste twist them and bend them into the shape of handles bake them very pale when the pastry cases are done empty out the rice remove them from the molds and fill with the following mixture chopped as many canned mushrooms as you require with a small shallot squeezed to them the juice and pulp of a large tomato and put them in a stew pan with a tablespoonful of butter and a tablespoon full of very thick white sauce stir till about the consistency to eat with a fork squeeze a few drops of lemon juice over the top put the handles in so that they stand over the tops decorate with fried parsley the large Spanish or Portuguese onion that has of late years appeared in the markets is not often properly cooked it is the most delicate and delicious of all onions lacking the usual intense heat and rank odor for this reason persons who wish to eat onions either for health or inclination will find this large onion cut up with ordinary salad dressing a great improvement even on bermudez this onion is full of a milky juice which is lost in cooking if it is cut therefore where a simple dish is required the best way is to boil it without peeling or trimming for three hours if it weighs three pounds it must be tender right through then take it up strip it and remove the root stock etc pour over it a rich white sauce and serve taking care that the gravy that runs from the onion is served with it a still better way when an oven is not wanted is to bake them put them in a dripping pan in the oven without removing peel or stalk bake at least four hours in a moderate oven it will burn and blacken outside which is of no consequence keep a turn so that the darkening may not go deeper one side than the other when quite tender but do not try it until it begins to shrink or you will let out the juices so that a knitting needle will run through it take it out of the oven strip off three or four skins remove root and stalk and place the onion without breaking it on a dish put a piece of butter as large as an egg with a soft spoonful of salt and a quarter one a pepper worked in it on the onion cover it and put in the oven till the butter melts and serve very hot stuffed Spanish onion parboil a Spanish onion then drop it into ice water take out the center and fill it with forcemeat cover with a thin slice of sweet fat pork sprinkle with a teaspoon full of salt and the same of sugar add four tablespoonfuls of stock cover closely and cook over a good fire when the onion is tender take it up remove the pork strain and skim the gravy pour it over and serve the best forcemeat for the stuffing is made of cold chicken a shred of boiled ham a little chopped parsley half a dozen mushrooms all chopped well and mixed with a tablespoonful of butter and pepper and salt potatoes on a Provence all mash and press through a wire sieve two pounds of potatoes season with pepper and salt great two ounces of Gruyere Swiss cheese pound it with enough butter to make a paste and a Gill of milk and a teaspoon full of chopped parsley put this in a saute pan add the potato mix all well and stir until the mass is pale brown serve as a pyramid Milanese potatoes make large potatoes till just tender cut off the tops which keep scoop out the potatoes but do not break the skin mash the inside with butter pepper salt and grated Parmesan about a teaspoon full of butter and cheese to each will be the right proportion beat the potato mixture with a fork for a minute to make it light refill the skins put on the covers and heat them in the oven scalloped potatoes mash 2 pounds of potatoes with milk and pass through a sieve three ounces of butter melted 2 ounces of grated Parmesan cheese and a little pepper and salt fill shelves with this mixture and brown them in the oven glaze them over with butter melted and grated Parmesan returned one minute to the hottest part of the oven serve very hot tomato jelly two pounds of tomatoes half a grain of red pepper and 2 small shallots place them in a stew pan and boil till quite soft melt half an ounce of gelatin and as little white stock as possible add this to the tomatoes and strain if not perfectly clear clarify with white of egg in the usual way mold and serve with chopped aspic round it a little grated Parmesan may be sometimes sprinkled over it for a change tomato souffle prepare some tomato pulp taking care to boil it down if too liquid stir in the yolks of three eggs then the whites well beaten salt to taste fill either a large souffle case or several small ones baking a hot oven till it rises very high and is set in the center serve instantly spinach fritters boil the spinach till it is quite tender drain press and mince it fine add half the quantity of graded stale bread 1 grade of nutmeg and a small teaspoon full of sugar add a Gill of cream and as many egg sets will make a batter beating the whites separately pepper and salt to taste drop a little from a spoon into boiling lard if it separates add a little more crumb of bread when they rise to the surface of the fat they are done drain them and serve very quickly or they will fall end of chapter 22 chapter 23 of choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by brandon weston choice cookery by Katherine Owen chapter 23 jellies in this country culinary skill seems to run too sweet rather than too savory cooking very few housekeepers but make excellent preserves and cakes yet the list of sweet dishes manufactured at home is very limited as soon as anything not in this category was required the caterer is applied to and he has his list of water ices cream ices and meringues with very little variation sometimes indeed a new name appears on the list but it turns out to be some old friend with a new garnish or put in a different mold and given an alluring name there are many delicious sweet dishes not difficult to make when once the processes of making jelly and of freezing are understood and very many who do not pretend to be good cooks are expert at these two things and others which do not require even that ability to put a sweet dish on the table however in perfection especially if it be an iced one requires the utmost care and skill the slightest carelessness in packing a frozen pudding any delay between removing it from the ice and getting it on the dish will destroy that dull marble like appearance it ought to wear when first it makes its injury although it will gleam with melting sweetness long before it reaches the partakers happily there are many delightful sweets which are beautiful in appearance and less depending on atmosphere than any of the family of ices the simplest of these are fruit jellies I spoke just now of the art of making jelly and many readers may think in using such a term for so simple a thing I am exaggerating and perhaps art is hardly the word yet there is a daintiness and nicety in making jelly which almost deserves the term however before talking of how sweet dishes are to be made it is necessary to provide the means by which they are to be redeemed from the commonplace of mirror it's and sweetness the flavorings and liqueurs keep indefinitely if well corked orange flower water it is true we'll lose strength but when a bottle is first opened if it is poured off into small vials and each one corked and sealed it will keep its original strength the following list of articles captain's store will unable a cook to give her cake screams etc just that foreign flavor that Home Products so often lack almonds almond paste candied cherries candied Angelica candied orange lemon and citron peels pistachio nuts orange flower water rose water prepared cochineal maraschino ratafia lemons extractor vanilla and sherry several of these things are used principally for decoration for instance the candied cherries and Angelica and the pistachio nuts consequently unless the cherries and Angelica are required for dessert to which they are a showy and delicious addition a quarter of a pound at a time is all that need be bought very likely in small cities or country places these latter articles might not be obtainable but they are sold at the large city caterers also at the stores which deal in French crystallized fruits not French candy stores and can always be sent by mail the vanilla should be of the finest quality and had better be bought by the ounce or half pint from the druggist than from the grocer there are good extracts put up no doubt but very many of them are largely made of tonka bean the flavor familiar and cheap ice cream in place of the more expensive vanilla in the recipes that will be given the directions will be as minut as possible but to prescribe the number of drops required to flavor a quart of cream would be utterly impossible the strength of the flavoring used differing so greatly even in lemons sometimes the juice of half a lemon will be right for a certain thing at another the juice of a quarter of one would be too much this is where judgment must be exercised if you have a very juicy lemon although your recipe says the juice of half you will remember that the average lemon would not yield nearly so much and that the author had the average lemon in mind this applies to all flavoring sometimes extract of bitter almond is so strong that even a drop would be too much to impart the faint almond flavor which alone is tolerable in this case the thing to do for fear of spoiling the dish is to pour a half-dozen drops in a tea spoon full of water and use from that drop by drop until the faint flavor desired is attained in using any flavoring great care must be taken not to put too much as anything in the least over flavored is offensive mold of apple jelly peel and cut up a pound of fine flavored apples to weigh a pound after preparation put them in a stew pan with three ounces of granulated sugar half a pint of water and the juice and grated rind of the lemon when cooked to a pulp pass through a strainer and stir in one ounce of gelatin that has been dissolved in a Gill of water color half of the apple with about half a teaspoonful of co-channel and fill a border mold with alternate layers of the colored and the uncolored apple when cold turn out and serve with half a pint of cream whipped solid and piled in the center there is a great difference in the solidity of whipped cream sometimes it will be a mere frost that shows a disposition to liquefy and cannot be piled up when this is the case there is always a great waste of cream for at least half will have been left as a milky residue the reason for this failure of the cream to whip solid is generally because it is too fresh or too warm if in proper condition cream will whip as solid as white of eggs and leave not a teaspoon full of liquid at the bottom of the bowl nor will there be the least danger of cream so whipped going back to liquid it will become sour but not change its form and it will take but a few minutes to beat cream intended for whipping should be 24 hours in warm weather and 36 in winter it should also be thoroughly chilled and if the day is very warm it would be better to set the bowl containing it on ice while whipping it put in the whip or eggbeater and do not lift the froth off as it rises it is quite unnecessary if the vessel you use for the cream is large enough as you see it begin to thicken which will be after steady beating for five or six minutes keep on just as you would for white of eggs when the beater is withdrawn you should be able to cut the cream or pile it in any height if by reason of excessive heat did is slow in reaching the proper consistency leave the beater in the bowl and set the hole on ice until very cold again the consistency of jelly should be only just stiff enough to keep form it should shake and tremble while being served instead of remaining solid it requires some little practice to make sure of this every time although exact proportions be given a tablespoonful difference in the pint or Guil measure would wear the gelatin is only just enough cause the jelly to squat not an elegant term but one that represents the form of too soft jelly a very exact recipe for plain Clarets jelly and which in proportion serves for any other unless special mention is made of some variation is as follows three-quarters of a pint of water one pint of claret a quarter of a pint of lemon juice this makes one quart of liquid the rind of one lemon half an inch of cinnamon in the stick and two cloves 1 tablespoonful of red currant jelly 2 ounces of gelatin the whites and shells of 2 eggs a few drops of co-channel and 4 ounces of sugar put all in a stew pan the gelatin having been softened in a little of the water whisked over the fire until the whole boils then draw it off let it stand for 5 to 10 minutes strain through flannel or fine linen without pressure add a few drops of co-channel to brighten the color and mold for use use great care and selecting cinnamon for very much that sold is not the true spice but a cheaper one cassia that resembles it cinnamon has a bright tan color is rolled many times and is not much thicker than paper or when a piece is unrolled cassia is thicker on the roll a dull Brown and if a piece is broken it is like a piece of wood it is similar in flavor but much coarser and has little strengths end of chapter 23