Choice Cookery | Catherine Owen | Cooking | Audiobook full unabridged | English | 1/3
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Choice cookery is not intended for households that have to study economy, except where economy is a relative term; where, perhaps, the housekeeper could easily spend a dollar for the materials of a luxury, but could not spare the four or five dollars a caterer would charge.
Many families enjoy giving little dinners, or otherwise exercising hospitality, but are debarred from doing so by the fact that anything beyond the ordinary daily fare has to be ordered in, or an expensive extra cook engaged. And although we may regret that hospitality should ever be dependent on fine cooking, we have to take things as they are. It is not every hostess who loves simplicity that dares to practise it.
It was to help the women who wish to know at a glance what is newest and best in modern cookery that these chapters were written for Harper’s Bazar, and are now gathered into a book. It is hoped by the writer that the copious details and simplification of different matters will enable those who have already achieved success in the plainer branches of cookery to venture further, and realize for themselves that it is only the “first step that costs.” – Summary by the Preface
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chapter one of choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by marianne Spiegel choice cookery by Katherine Owen preface choice cookery is not intended for households that have to study economy except where economy is a relative term where perhaps the housekeeper could easily spend a dollar for the materials of a luxury but could not spare the four or five dollars a caterer would charge many families enjoy giving little dinners or otherwise exercising hospitality but are debarred from doing so by the fact that anything beyond the ordinary daily fare has to be ordered in or an expensive extra cook engaged and although we may regret that hospitality should ever be dependent on fine cooking we have to take things as they are it is not every hostess who love simplicity that dares to practice it it was to help the women who wish to know at a glance what is newest and best in modern cookery that these chapters were written for Harper's Bazaar and are now gathered into a book it is hoped by the writer that the copious details and simplification of various matters will enable those who have already achieved success in the planar branches of cookery to venture further and realize for themselves that it is only the first step that costs I have to acknowledge my indebtedness to mrs. Clarke of the South Kensington school of cookery – Madame de Salus and those epicurean friends who have cast their nets in foreign waters and sent me the daintiest fish they caught chapter 1 introduction by choice cookery is meant exactly what the words imply there will be no attempt to teach family or inexpensive cooking those branches of domestic economy having been so excellently treated by capable hands already it may be said on the song however that even choice cooking is not necessarily expensive many dishes cost little for the materials but they're daintiness and expensiveness to the care bestowed in cooking or to a fine sauce for instance cod one of the cheapest of fish and considered course food as usually served becomes an epicurean dish when served with fine hollandaise or oyster sauce and it will not even then be more expensive than any average priced boiling fish flounder served as sole Normand conjures up memories of the famous Phillipe whose fortune it made or it may be of luxurious little dinners at other famous restaurants and is suggestive in fact of anything but economy yet it is really an inexpensive dish but while it is quite true that fine cooking does not always mean expensive cooking it is also true that it requires the best materials and sufficient of them that as satisfactory results are to be obtained there must be no attempt to stint or change proportions from a false idea of economy although it must never be forgotten that all good cooking is economical by which I mean that there is no waste every sense where the material being made to do its full duty in this book the object will be to give the newest and most ratio chez dishes and these will naturally be expensive yet for those families who depend upon the caterer for everything in the way of fine soups entrees or sauces because the cook can achieve only the playing part of the dinner it will be found a great economy as well as convenience to be independent of this outside resource which is always very costly and invariably destroys the individuality of our past many new recipes will be given and others little-known in private kitchens or thought to be quite beyond the attainment of any but the accomplished chef but if strict attention be paid to small matters and the directions faithfully carried out there will be no difficulty in a lady becoming her own chef I propose to begin with sauces this is reversing the usual mode and yet I think the reader will not regret the innovation in the cooking to be taught in these pages being emphatically what is popularly known as Delmonico very much depends on the excellence of the sauces served with each dish and as it is no time to learn to make a fine sauce when the dish it is served with is being cooked I think the better plan is to give the sauces first they will be frequently referred to but no repetition of the recipes will be given before proceeding further I will say a few words that may save time and patience hereafter of course it is not expected that anyone will hope to succeed with elaborate dishes without understanding the principles of simple cooking but many do this without perceiving that in that knowledge they hold the key to very much more and I would ask readers who are in earnest about the matter to acquire the habit of putting two and two together in cooking as they would in fancy work if you know half a dozen embroidery or lace stitches you see at once that you can produce the elaborate combinations in which those stitches are used so it is with cooking the most elaborate dish will only be a combination of two or three simpler processes of cooking perfectly done that is a scenic one on something fried roasted boiled or braised to perfection and a sauce that no chef could improve upon but to recognize that this is so that when you can make a Chateaubriand sauce or burn a perfectly and can saute a steak the famed fillet ala Chateaubriand or ala Bernays are no longer a mystery and that one who can make a clear mint jelly and roasted chicken has learned all but the arrangement of a Shaw frond in aspic and will make apparently complicated dishes simple I go into these matters because I hope to cause my readers to think about the recipes they will use when they will see for themselves that even the finest cooking is not intricate nor in any way difficulty it requires intelligence and great care about details no half attention will do any more than it will do in any other thing we attempt whether it be high art or domestic art in making sauces or reading recipes for them it simplifies matters to remember that in savory sauces by which I mean those served with meats or fish there are what the French called the two mother sauces white sauce and brown all others with few exceptions are modifications of these two that is to say bechamel is only white sauce made with white stock and cream instead of milk allemande is the same on the yolks of eggs replace the cream and so on through the long list of sauces belonging to the blonde variety the simple brown sauce becomes the famous Chateaubriand by the addition of glaze or very strong gravy and a glass of white wine and is the mother of many others equally fine this being so it will be seen that it is of the first importance that the making of these two mother sauces should be thoroughly understood in order for the finer ones based on them to be successfully accomplished it will clear the way for easy work if I here give the directions for making one of the most necessary and convenient aids to find cooking the above-named glaze to have it in the house saves much worry and work if the soup is not just so strong as we wish the addition of a small piece of glaze will make it excellent or we wish to make brown sauce and have no stock the glaze comes to our aid to have stock in the house at all times is by no means easy in a small family especially in summer with glaze which is solidified stock one is independent of it six pounds of lean beef from the leg or a knuckle of veal and beef to make six pounds I cut this in pieces two inches square or less do the same with half a pound of lean ham free from rind or smoky outside and which has been scalded five minutes put the meat into a two gallon pot with three medium sized onions with two cloves in each a turnip a carrot and a small head of celery pour over them five quarts of cold water let it come slowly to the boiling point when skinned and draw to a spot where it will gently simmer for six hours this stock as it is will be an excellent foundation for all of clear soups or gravies with the addition of salt which must unknown be added for glaze to reduce the stock to glaze to his follows strain the stock first through a colander and return meat and vegetables to the pot put to them four quarts of hot water and let it boil for hours longer the importance of this second boiling which may at first sight appear useless economy will be seen if you let the two stocks get cold the first will be of delightful flavor but probably quite liquid the last will be flavorless but if the boiling process has been slow enough it will be a jelly the second boiling having been necessary to extract the gelatin from the bones which is indispensable for the formation of glaze strain both these stocks through a scalded cloth if they have been allowed to get cool heat them in order to strain but both stocks together into one large pot and let it boil as fast as possible with the cover off leaving a large spoon in it to prevent it boiling over also to stir occasionally when it is reduced to three pints put it into a small saucepan and let it boil more slowly stir frequently with a wooden spoon until it begins to thicken and has a fine yellowish brown color which will be when it is reduced to a quart or rather less at this point watch closely as it quickly burns when there is only a pint and a half it will be fit to pour into small cups or jars or it may be dried in thin sheets if required for soup in travelling to do this pour it into oiled tin pans an inch deep when cold it can be cut in two inch squares and dried by exposure to the air till it is like glue one square makes a cup of strong soup if dissolved in boiling water and seasoned however if it is put into pots it must not be covered until all moisture has evaporated and the glaze shrinks from the sides of the jar this may take a month the most convenient of always for preserving glaze is to get from your butcher a yard of sauce skin tie one end very tightly then pour in the glaze while warm by means of a large funnel tie the skin just as you would a sausage as close to the glaze as possible cut off any remaining skin and hang the one containing the glaze up to dry when needed a slice is cut from this of course any strong meat and bone soup can be boiled down in the same way and where there is meat on hand in danger of spoiling from sudden change of weather it can be turned into glaze and kept indefinitely I have found glaze 5 years old to be as good as the first week end of chapter 1 chapter 2 of choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Marianne choice cookery by Katherine Owen chapter 2 sauces in addition to the glaze for which the recipe is given in the preceding pages and which will make you independent of the stockpot there are several other articles involving very small outlay which it is absolutely necessary to have at hand in order to follow directions without trouble and worry it is often said by thoughtless housekeepers that cooking books are of little use because the recipe always calls for something that is not in the house this is a habit of mind only for the very women who say it keep their work basket supplied with everything necessary for work not only the everyday white and black spools nor would they hesitate to undertake a piece of embroidery which required quite unusual combinations of color and material and to be obtained only with difficulty grant a little of this earnest painstaking to the requirements of the cooking book at the start see that the herb bottles are supplied with dried herbs when fresh are not attainable the spice boxes contain the small quantity of fresh fine spices that is sufficient for a good deal of cooking and red and white wine and brandy are in the house all of which should be kept in the store closet for cooking alone and not liable to be out when wanted the so-called French herbs are rarely found in American gardens yet might be very readily sown in early spring as parsley is but although seldom homegrown they are to be found at the French market gardeners in Washington market and can be bought fresh and dried in paper bags quickly for use I say dried quickly because unless the Sun is very hot much of the aroma will pass into the air it is therefore better to dry them in a cool oven when they are dry enough to crumble to dust free the herbs from stems and twigs and put them separately into tin boxes or wide-mouthed bottles each labeled the expense of herbs and spices is very slight and they are certainly not neglected among kitchen stores on that account it is merely the want of habit in ordering them in addition to these articles a bottle of capers one of Olives one of anchovies canned mushrooms and canned truffles should be on hand the latter should be bought in the smallest sized cans as they are very costly but a little goes a long way families living in the country often have for a season more mushrooms than they can use in a few days in which they are plentiful opportunity should be taken to peel and dry as many as possible when powdered they give a finer flavor than the canned mushroom and may be used to great advantage in dark sauces the French chef classes all white sauces as blonde and calls the jar a very smooth thick white sauce which he keeps it ready-made as a foundation for most of the family of light sauces his blond or Belote this explanation is given because directions are often found in French recipes to take half a pound of the load or of blonde the mistress of a private house may not find it wise or necessary to keep a supply of sauce ready-made although to one who has to supply a variety of sauces each day it is indispensable but the day before the dinner party sauces can be made and covered with a film of butter to prevent skin forming and can then be heated in a Don Murray when required for use almost every chef has his favorite recipe for apple oak or white sauce but they differ only in points that are little essential the foundation is always the same as follows put two ounces of butter in a thick sauce pan with two ounces of flour tablespoons approximate the ounce but wait only should be relied on for fine cooking let these melt over the fire stirring them so that the butter and flour become well mixed then let them bubble together stirring enough to prevent the flour sticking or changing color three minutes will suffice to cook the flour add a pint of clear hot white stock that has been strained through a cloth this stock must not be poured slowly or the sauce will thicken too fast hold the pipe measure or other vessel in which the stock may be in the left hand stir the butter and flour quickly with the right then turn the broth to it all at once let this simmer an hour until very thick then add a gill a very rich cream stir and the sauce is ready this is undoubtedly the best way to make white sauce which is to serve as a foundation for others or is intended to mask meat or poultry the long slow simmering producing and extreme blendness not to be attained by a quicker method but circumstances sometimes prevent the previous preparation of the sauce in which case it may be made exactly in the same way only instead of a pint of broth but three gills should be poured on the butter and flour and a Gill of thick cream stirred in when it boils the sauce is finished when it again reaches the boiling point this is the foundation for the following grand sauces Poulet allemande whistles soubise sont Mon hold Perigord supreme besides all the simpler ones which take their name from the chief ingredients such as caper cauliflower sorry lobster etc etc for sauces that have vinegar or lemon juice it is better that the bullet or white sauce should have no cream until the last minute or it may curdle my object in giving the recipes for sauces in the way I intend that is to say by building on – or omitting from one foundation sauce is to dispel some of the confusion which exists in the minds of many people about the exact difference between several sauces differing from each other only very slightly a confusion which is only added to by reading over the fully written recipes for each as many a painstaking intelligent woman's headache will testify as we progress the exact difference between each will be explained bechamel this sauce differs from the white sauce only in the fact that the white stock used for the latter need not be very strong for bechamel it should be either very strong or boiled down rapidly to make it so and there should always be 1/2 cream instead of 1/3 as in white sauce and when required for fish the stock may be of fish white sauce is frequently perhaps most frequently made with milk or milk and cream in place of stock in this country and answers admirably for many purposes but would not be what is required for the kind of cooking intended in these pages most readers know how to stir and it may seem quite an unnecessary matter to go into yet if only one reader does not know that to stir means a regular even slow circling of the spoon not only in the center of the saucepan but round the sides she will fail in making good sauce stir then slowly gently going over every part at the bottom of the saucepan till the sides are reached past the spoon gently round them thence back to the middle and so on in this way the sauce gets no chance to stick to any particular spot a small copper saucepan is the best possible utensil for making sauce as it does not burn the rule for seasoning is a level salt spoonful of salt to half a pint pepper 1/4 the quantity this however is only when the stock is unseasoned if seasoned only salt enough must be added to season the cream and eggs allemande take half a pint of white sauce add to it half the liquor from a can of mushrooms and half a dozen of the mushrooms chopped fine let them simmer stirring all the time 5 minutes then remove from the fire set the saucepan into another containing boiling water have the yolks of three eggs ready beaten put a little of the sauce to them beat together then add the eggs gradually to the rest of the sauce which must be returned to the fire and stirred until the eggs begin to thicken then it must be quickly removed and stirred until slightly cool season with a salt spoonful of salt 1/4 of 1 of pepper and strain carefully it must never be forgotten that in thickening with eggs the sauce or soup must not boil after they are added or they will curdle yet if they do not reach the boiling point they will not thicken only keen attention to the first sign of thickening will ensure success if a failure is made the first time look upon it as the first step to success for you have learned what the danger looks like make the sauce again as soon as possible so that your eye may not lose the impression it is worth considerable effort and it is really only a matter of a few minutes each time to make allamanda sauce well for in doing so you also learn to make hollandaise and several choice sauces as will be seen by those that follow Poulet sauce make Aleman sauce as directed in the foregoing recipe at a wine glass of white wine is sweet breads or chicken are to be cooked in the sauce as is not unusual of course the eggs must be left out until the last thing anything served with this sauce is called a la follette sauce a la dick so chopped fine a dozen small but mushrooms or half a dozen large ones parsley in chives of each enough to make a teaspoonful when finely chopped of lean ham a tablespoonful and one small shallot fry gently in a tablespoon full of butter but do not let them Brown stir these in to half a pint of white sauce simmer three or four minutes then add two yolks of eggs as for allemande and the last thing a 1/2 teaspoon full of lemon juice and just enough glaze to make the sauce the shade of a pale suede glove this sauce is used cold to coat meats that have been cooked in paper and many that are afterwards to be fried in breadcrumbs for which directions will be given in the entrees dishes termed alla to excel are among the most Russia che productions of the French kitchen for the ROI sauce make half a pint of white sauce which as in the case of bechamel may be made a fish stock when for use with fish chopped half a dozen mushrooms and add a Gill of liquor to the sauce half a salt spoonful of powdered time or once break if fresh two sprigs of parsley and half a bay leaf simmer for 15 minutes strain through a scalded cloth replace on the fire add a piece of glaze as large as a hazelnut or a tablespoon full of strong meat gravy just enough to give it the shade of the palest cafe la thickened with two yolks of eggs as for allemande sauce all articles served with this sauce are termed a la Villeroy it differs from duck sell only in having no ham nor acidity from the lemon also all flavor of onion is emitted end of chapter 2 chapter 3 of choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Marianne choice cookery by Katherine Owen chapter three white sauces supreme sauce gives its name to several dishes dear to epicures supreme de volalle supreme de toulouse etc it is made with a pint of thick white sauce a pint of very strong chicken broth four stalks of parsley and six white peppercorns boiled down to half a pint stir sauce and broth together until thoroughly blended then boil rapidly down until thick again taking great care it does not burn add one Gill of double cream and half a salt spoonful of salt if the stock was already and boil up till thick enough to mask the back of a spoon strain and the last thing at a small teaspoon full of lemon juice when the white sauce has to be made expressly for the supreme it is easier to use strong chicken broth in place of ordinary white stock then it is not necessary to add it after the term to mask the back of a spoon is a common one to indicate the proper thickness for sauces but to the untrained eye it may not be easy to decide just what masking means most sauces should be thin enough to run quite freely from the spoon yet not so thin as to leave the color of the spoon visible through the coating of sauce it will retain if it be dipped into it there should be a thin opaque coating or mask to the back of the spoon sauce of this thickness is produced by using 1 ounce exact weight of flour of fine quality to half a pint of liquid meat fish or vegetables over which a sauce of this consistency has been poured will be quite masked but the sauce will not be too thick to serve readily with a spoon this consistency is worth some practice to attain for it is the perfection of sauce making white sauce when intended for the foundation of others it must be observed is made twice as thick to allow for the addition of cream wine or stock the only advantage in a private family of making it thus thick is when perhaps two or three sauces are needed for dinner for example a plain white sauce for a vegetable caper lobster or Cardinal for other purposes and perhaps Poulet duxelle or other pale sauce for an entree but when one sauce only is required it is best to make that one from the beginning that is to say make white sauce with the additions that form it into allemande supreme or whatever you require some men hold sauce is in these days chiefly associated with pigs feet alicent men hold but is good for several purposes it is simply half a pint of white sauce into which a dozen bruised mushrooms a Gill of mushroom liquor a large teaspoon full of fine chopped chives with the sixth of a salt spoonful of pepper and one of salt are allowed to simmer until the sauce is the same thickness as before the addition of the mushroom liquor that is to say thick enough to mask the spoon strain returned to the saucepan and add a teaspoonful of finely chopped sage leaves if for pigs feet or parsley for other purposes boil once add half a teaspoon full of lemon juice and the sauce is ready Bearnaise sauce this is one of the most difficult sauces to make on account of the danger of the eggs curdling but by the following method the work is rendered more sure than by the usual plan it has been said that the tears of a cook are Renee's sauce and omelette souffle but neither is really difficult great care only is necessary for success with each chop for shallots fine put them into a saucepan with half a gill of tarragon vinegar and half a gill of plain vinegar boil till reduce to one tablespoon full then add one Gill of white sauce mixing well stand the saucepan in another of boiling water then add one at a time three yolks of eggs beating each one well in before adding the other and on no account let the sauce boil remove the saucepan from the fire when the eggs are all in and show signs of thickening have ready three ounces of butter cut into small pieces drop in one at a time and with an egg whisk beat the sauce till the butter is blended then add another piece and so on till all the butter is used if added too quickly the butter will oil therefore great care must be taken to see one piece entirely blend before adding another the butter will probably salt the sauce enough but if not add a very little salt this sauce should had the appearance of a Welsh rabbit when ready to spread in other words it should be very thick smooth and dark yellow soubise this sauce which transforms ordinary mutton chops into kotta let's Alice ooby's is very easily made well half a dozen Bermuda onions medium size in milk till quite tender press out all the milk chop them as fine as possible sprinkle a quarter of a salt spoonful of white pepper and one of salt over them then stir them with a tablespoonful of butter into half a pint of white sauce if the onions should thin the sauce too much they're sometimes very watery they can with a yolk of egg or blend a teaspoon full of flour with the butter before stirring it in boil the sauce three minutes needless to say if the yolk of egg is added it must be beaten in after the sauce is removed from the stove and only allowed to thicken not boil the sauce is so far given our what French cooks call grand sauces they're the most important part of the dish with which they are served and as we have seen give the name to it there are numberless other sauces of which the white sauce is parent that are however not indispensable to the dish they are served with by which I mean a boiled fish may be served with oyster sauce or Dutch sauce the sauce being in this case simply the adjunct a dessert spoonful of capers put into half a pint of white sauce with a teaspoon full of vinegar makes caper sauce celery sauce is again white sauce with the pulp of boiled celery boil the white part of four heads of celery slice thin in milk till it will mash this will take an hour perhaps more then rub the pulp through a coarse sieve and stir it into half a pint of white sauce made with half rich cream oyster sauce is white sauce made by using the oyster the core instead of stock the oyster should be bearded just allowed to plump in the liquor which must then be strained for the sauce using a guilt of it with a Gill of thick cream to make half a pint for this quantity a dozen and a half small oysters will be required shrimp sauce parsley sauce lobster sauce cucumber sauce and all the family are white sauces with the addition of the ingredient naming it cucumber sauce which is approved for fish is made by grating a cucumber and adding it with the water from it to some white sauce til well-flavored and then strain if to thin boil till thick stirring carefully for shrimp sauce canned shrimps serve very well indeed they must be thrown for a minute into cold water while stirred in it to remove superfluous salt then drained and dried on a cloth put a gill of shrimps to half a pint of bechamel made with fish stock boil once and stir in just enough essence of anchovy to make the sauce a pale shrimp pink Cardinal sauce is a handsome sauce for boiled fish it is made by drying the coral from a lobster then pounding it quite smooth with one ounce of butter until it is a perfectly smooth paste stir this into half a pint of bechamel it should be a fine red when mixed passed through a sieve and add as much Cayenne as will go on the end of the blade of a small penknife hollandaise or Dutch sauce is best made in the following way there are other methods but this one meets general approval is not difficult and agrees with many who cannot possibly eat it when oil is used make half a pint of drawn butter by melting one ounce of butter with one ounce of flour over the fire let them bubble together stirring the while for 1 minute then stir in half a pint of boiling water and half a teaspoon full of salt so far the making is exactly the same as for white sauce except that water is used instead of cream and stock boil once then set the saucepan in another of water and break up an ounce of butter into small pieces and add them stir briskly after each piece is added and see it blend before putting more when all is in add the beaten yolks of 5 eggs removing the saucepan from the fire while doing it they must be very carefully and gradually stirred in and when well mixed returned to the fire until they begin to thicken the eggs must be kept from curdling squeeze in two teaspoonfuls of lemon juice and add just a dust of cayenne this should be a thick yellow custard like sauce and have a perceptible acidity without being sour end of chapter 3 chapter 4 of choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Mary Anne choice cookery by Katherine Owen chapter 4 Brown sauces it has already been stated that the family of brown sauces like the white have one parent española or Spanish sauce which is the foundation for Chateaubriand financière ro-bear pro vard piquant and other sauces ordinary brown sauce like ordinary white is often made without stock simply an ounce of flour 1 of butter browned together and half a pint of boiling water added then boiled till thick and smooth but it may be safely said that in high class dark sauces water should play no part its place must be taken by stock of good quality which is often enriched by reducing or adding glaze the characteristics of finally made Spanish sauce are a clear beautiful brown by no means approaching black absolute freedom from grease and a fine high flavor so well blended that no particular spice or herb can be detected Spanish sauce is made as follows wash peel and cut small 6 mushrooms or a dessert spoonful of mushroom powder 1 small carrot 1 small onion 1 shallot dry them and fry them a fine Brown in a tablespoon of butter but do not let them burn drain off the butter melt in a copper saucepan 2 ounces of butter and 2 ounces of flour stir them together over the fire till of a pale bright brown then add a pint of stock the fried vegetables and a Gill of tomato sauce but all gently simmer for half an hour with the cover off strain through a fine sieve when Spanish sauce is to be served without any addition and not as a foundation a wine glass of sherry is used in the same quantity of stock omitted it becomes Chateaubriand by the addition of a wine glass of sherry reduced to half a glass by boiling in a tiny saucepan a dessert spoonful of fresh parsley very finely chopped and the juice of half a small lemon these must be added to one-third the quantity of espanol or Spanish sauce given in the foregoing recipe then stir in gradually bit by bit one ounce of butter letting each piece blend before adding more I have said here in elsewhere the juice of half a small lemon yet I would caution the reader to squeeze it in gradually because some lemons are intensely sour and a very few drops of juice from such go farther than that of the whole half of an average lemon Chateaubriand sauce is by no means acid there must be only a just perceptible dash of acidity and only so much lemon juice used as will give it zest the Quandt sauce is different there should be acidity enough to provoke appetite yet even this should be by no means sour to make the quant sauce chop a shallot fine put it with a tablespoon full of vinegar into a very small saucepan let them stew together until the vinegar is entirely absorbed but do not let it burn then add it to half a pint of Spanish sauce and a Gill of stock with a bay leaf and a sprig of thyme cook very gently 10 minutes remove the thyme and bay leaf and add a dessert spoonful of chopped pickled cucumber a teaspoon full of capers and a dessert spoonful of finely chopped parsley simmer very slowly ten minutes more then add enough cayenne to lay on the tip of a pen knife blade pauvre rod resembles pecan sauce very closely differing from it however by the addition of wine and high flavouring to make it fry an onion and a small carrot cut fine a tomato sliced and an ounce of lean ham in two ounces of butter let them Brown slightly then add to them half a pint of claret a bouquet of herbs two cloves and six peppercorns let them simmer until the wine has reduced 1/2 then add half a pint of good Spanish sauce boil gently 10 minutes strain and serve very hot a true French probe wad has a zoo song of garlic obtained by rubbing a crust on a clove of it and simmering it in the sauce before straining it but although many would like the scarcely perceptible zest imparted by this cautious use of garlic no one should try the experiment unless sure of her company a bouquet of herbs always means two sprigs of parsley one of time one of marjoram and a bay leaf so rolled together the bay leaf in the middle and tied that there is no difficulty in removing it from any dish which is not to be strained the well-known Bordelaise sauce is simply Spanish sauce with the addition of white wine and shallots scald a tablespoonful of chopped shallots put them to half a pint of Shepley Sauternes or any other similar white wine but the wine reduced to one Gill then mix it with half a pint of Spanish sauce and the sixth part of a salt spoonful of pepper a strain and serve ro-bear sauce that excellent adjunct to beefsteak varies again from bordeaux lay vinegar and mustard and fried onions taking the place of the wine and shallot chopped 3 medium sized onions quite fine fry them in a tablespoonful of butter until they are a clear yellowish brown stirring them constantly as they fry drain them and put them to half a pint of Spanish sauce to which you add a wine glass of stock to allow for boiling away simmer gently 20 minutes add a pinch of pepper strain then mix a teaspoon full of vinegar in a cup with a teaspoon full of mustard stir this into the sauce sauce Elinor Monde is one of the most delicious sauces for baked fish of any kind although usually associated with soul to have a pint of Spanish sauce add a dozen mushrooms sliced in half a dozen small oysters with the beards removed and a dozen crawfish if they are to be had or their place may be taken by a tablespoon of shrimps packed canned shrimp washed and dried answer very well one tablespoon full of essence of anchovy and just a dust of cayenne pepper light Normand is made by using bechamel instead of Spanish sauce adding all the other materials and then it is a pale salmon colored sauce excellent for boiled fish a favorite English sauce for fish which is also brown or pink according to whether it is intended for baked or boiled fish is the doughten sauce two three quarts of a pint of bechamel add a dessert spoon full of anchovy essence and a small wine glass of sherry mix well and serve orange sauce for game is made with half a pint of spanish sauce boiled five minutes to make it rather thicker than usual the juice of three sweet oranges and the peel of one this peel must be so thinly paired as to be transparent boil this peel half an hour in water then shredded into fine even strips have an inch long and not thicker than broom straw stew this shredded peel another half an hour in a Gill of stock with a scant teaspoon full of sugar then add it to the sauce with half a salt spoonful of salt and boil five minutes Matt a lot may come in with the brown sauces although it is not made with Spanish sauce as a foundation but only with strong stock it is used to simmer fish in when directed to be a la-metal oat and if it were already thickened the hole would burn it is made as follows half a pint of so terribly have a pint of rich stock two bay leaves three leaves of tarragon chervil and chive a scant salt spoonful of salt a quarter one of pepper simmer these until reduced to one half pint a touch of garlic is indispensable to the true metal oat but when used it must be done with the greatest caution a fork stuck into a clove of it then stirred in the sauce the fork when withdrawn not the garlic or a crust rubbed across a piece of it is the only way in which it should be used like the white sauces the family brown ones very large but I have given those which require special directions others are simply Spanish sauce with the addition of the ingredient which gives its name to it as brown oyster sauce is simply Spanish the sauce with oysters celery sauce mushroom sauce and so on it should always be remembered that the consistency must be preserved that is to say except when special mention is made of the sauce being thinner it should mask the spoon and if the addition made to it is of a kind to diluted as mushrooms and part of their liqueur it must be rapidly boiled down to the original thickness in the same way when ingredients have been simmered in the sauce and this is very often the case then a wine glass bowl or half one of broth or stock should be allowed for the wasting in the next chapter we will make acquaintance with the miscellaneous sauces which are not built on the foundation of either white or brown sauce these are chiefly cold sauces although served with hot dishes at time as tartar remoulade etc end of chapter 4 chapter 5 of choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Marianne choice cookery by Katherine Owen chapter five cold sauces cold dishes which are such a pleasing feature of foreign cookery are much neglected with us at least in private kitchens where they are limited to two or three articles served in mayonnaise or a gelatin yet the dishes which the French call should fraud are both delicious and ornamental and it only requires a little taste care and perfect sauce to convert the ordinary cold chicken turkey or game into an elaborate and choice dish among cold sauces of course mayonnaise both green red and yellow reigns supreme indeed of late years it has become almost hackneyed yet no work on choice eating would be complete without the different forms of mayonnaise mayonnaise is one of those sauces in which everything depends on care and very little on skill and yet some women have quite a reputation for making it among their friends who often declare how unsuccessful their own efforts have been and that to succeed is a gift it is not as a novelty therefore that the matter of making it is given here but that those who believe they have not the magic fingers may take courage and try again first of all let me explain what seems to puzzle many I have been frequently asked how much oil can I use to two eggs the answer is as much as you choose or again how many eggs ought I to take to a quart of oil again the answer is one two three or four the egg is only a foundation and mayonnaise will come no better with two yolks than one although some chefs consider it keeps better when two eggs are used to a pint of oil a cool room is always insisted on for making the sauce but to the amateur I say oil eggs and Bowl also should be put in the icebox until well chilled and even then mishaps may come from using a warm spoon from a hot kitchen drawer or closet that therefore must be cool also of course it is often successfully made with only the usual precaution of a cool room but with everything well chilled it is hard to fail if a very little of the sauce is wanted one yolk of egg will be better than to separate the yolks very carefully allowing not a speck of white to remain remove also the germ which is attached to the yolk stir the yoga at least a minute before beginning to add oil then arrange your bottle or a sharp spout a pitcher on your left hand so that it rests on the edge of the bowl and you can keep up a pretty steady drop drop into the egg while you stir with your right steadily the oil must be at a drop by drop but this does not mean a drop every 2 or 3 minutes you may add a drop to every one or two circuits of the spoon the reason for adding it slowly is that each drop may form an emulsion with the egg before more goes in after 2 or 3 minutes we'll carefully at the mixture if it has not begun to look pale and opaque but retains a dark oily appearance stir it steadily for two minutes and then add oil slowly drop by drop stirring all the time if it has not now begun to thicken it probably will not but the materials are not lost put the yolk of another egg into a cool bowl and begin again using the egg and oil you have already mixed in place of fresh oil when all this is used proceed with the oil it is hoped however that the work will have proceeded without the necessity for beginning of fresh when the mayonnaise becomes quite thick use a few drops of vinegar to thin it then more oil until sufficient sauce is made then white pepper and salt should be added for seasoning the vinegar used should be very strong so that very little of it will be sufficient to give the necessary acidity without making it too thin this is especially the case when the sauce is required to mask salad it should for this purpose be set on ice until firm but in all cases be kept cold the best mayonnaise left in a warm kitchen would separate and become oily the stirring must be steady and constant and the task must not be left until completed manys is the basis of several other sauces so that in accomplishing it a great deal is done green mayonnaise is made by dropping a bunch of parsley into boiling water and in a minute or two when it becomes intensely green take it up pounded in a mortar and then through a sieve use as much pulp as will color the sauce a delicate green red mayonnaise used for Cardinal sauce and other purposes is made by pounding Lobster coral very fine and stirring it in it must not be forgotten that anything added to mayonnaise must be ice cold aspic mayonnaise is another form of the sauce used in dressing cold dishes and while more delicious than the usual sauce will keep its form for hours after the dishes dressed it is absolutely necessary to prepare it on ice put half a pint of stiff aspic jelly into a bowl and set in cracked ice whisk it with an egg beater until it is a white froth usually the motion will melt it but to save labor it may be said in lukewarm water to soften then beaten but no oil must be added again until is ice-cold froth then beaten very gradually a quarter of a pint of olive oil and a tablespoon of tarragon vinegar proceeding with the same care as for the usual mayonnaise add a salt spoonful of salt a pinch of pepper and the same of powdered sugar Norwegian sauce is preferred by many to tartare for some purposes and is made by adding freshly grated horseradish to mayonnaise in the proportion of two tablespoons to have a pint tartar sauce is mayonnaise with the addition of mustard chives pickles and tarragon chopped as usually served it has only mustard and capers or chopped cucumbers but for those to whom a slight flavour of onion is not disagreeable chives should be added to half a pint of mayonnaise use a teaspoon full of dry mustard mixed with two of tarragon vinegar then stir into the sauce to this add a tablespoonful either of capers or chopped pickled cucumber this is the usual Tatar sauce but the French recipe is a tablespoon full of finely chopped chives a tablespoon each of fresh tarragon and chervil in place of the pickles cold cucumber sauce is mayonnaise with an equal quantity of grated cucumber drained pressed and stirred into it with a salt spoonful of salt and a few drops of very strong vinegar horseradish sauce is a very good sauce for hot or cold beef roast or boiled grate three tablespoons fulls of horseradish fine put to it a tablespoon full of sugar one of salt and one of vinegar or a tablespoon full of Chablis wine let them soak an hour or two and the last thing before serving stir in four tablespoons full of cream that is whipped very solid 1/2 teaspoon full of dry mustard is sometimes mixed with the horseradish but that is a matter of taste when the sauce is to be served hot 2 yolks of egg and 2 tablespoons full of water must be substituted for cream which would curdle the water horseradish etc must first come to the boiling point then the eggs added gradually and just allowed to thicken not to boil mint sauce take only the young tender leaves not a bit of stem and chop very fine indeed two two tablespoons full add a tablespoon full and a half of brown sugar and three a vinegar it should be quite thick not as we so often see it vinegar with a few bits of mint floating around mint jelly from asking cold lamb or cutlets take two tablespoons full of Spanish sauce and dissolve in it a good teaspoon full of gelatin softened in cold stock a tablespoon full of a speck and one of thick mint sauce if no aspect is ready it is not worthwhile to make for the small quantity needed a teaspoon full of glaze to of gelatin and half a wine glass of saw iron may be dissolved together to take its place no gelatin will be needed with the Spanish sauce in this case sweet sauces will be left until the desserts are treated of end of chapter five chapter six of choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org reporting bye Betty be choice cookery by Katherine Owen chapter six soups it is not proposed to give the soups to be found readily in most cooking books in these pages but only those less known or a peculiar excellence it is supposed that the reader understands the making of good beef or veal stock and perhaps the usual way of clearing it but since cooking has been studied scientifically improvements on methods have been introduced one of these is the clearing of soup with albumin of meat instead of egg the advantages of this method are that the soup is strengthened and the flavour improved while clearing with whites of eggs in the usual way though greatly improving the appearance tends to lessen the flavor of soup to clear consomme with beef consommé is reduced stock or stock made of extra strength careful remove all fat from three pints of it when cold it will of course be a stiff jelly chopped fine an onion a carrot and a turnip chop half a pound of lean beef from which all fat is removed this is best put through a chopping machine as it must be very fun put the consomme meat and vegetables into a saucepan stir them briskly till just on the boiling point remove the spoon let the soup boil up well one minute it should now be clear take a clean cloth fix it on a soup stand or in a colander pour boiling water through it to warm it thoroughly throw the water away and pour the soup gently through the cloth twice do not press or stir it it will be beautifully clear and of excellent color it is now ready to serve for a variety of soups named according to what is served in them consomme a la Rachel this is consomme – which is added tiny quenelles made in exponents and colored red green and black quenelle meat is made from the uncooked breasts of chicken or game the backs of hares or rabbits or it may be made for certain purposes of fish or very white veal first chopped and then pounded in a mortar until it is a perfectly smooth paste near chopped meat is not what is required it must be fine enough to go through a sieve for consomme ala Rachael however the breast of chicken is necessary take 4 ounces of chicken free from skin and sinew found it until quite smooth the more it is pounded the better it is mix with a thick cream a scant salt spoonful of salt very little pepper and half a beaten egg until it is a softish paste yet firm enough to mold mix thoroughly now try a little by poaching in a teaspoon that is fill a teaspoon with the mixture pressing an in-form then drop it into boiling water for three minutes open the quenelle and taste it if it is creamy light and well flavored it is right but if there is the least toughness add a little more cream to the mixture notice also the seasoning if more salt needed added carefully and try again till you have the quenelle mixture just right that is to say creamy light very tender yet keeping its form at present quenelle as entrees or for soups form such an important part of fine cooking that it is worthwhile to get the mixture perfect for other purposes than the present having a quenelle meat ready proceed to variant as follows allowing one quenelle of each color to each guests for the green clan else use sufficient pounded tarragon to color one-third of the meat delicately for the second use sufficient lobster coral pounded to redness the third must be made dark with pounded truffles great care must be taken to keep the three portions separate so that one color may not injure the other to form them use two very small coffee spoons or egg spoons as the canal should not be larger than small olives but are the spoon slightly and when formed drop each for one or two minutes into boiling pale colored stock drop them as they are done into cold water in which they must be kept and you're ready to use them when the soup is to be served drain them lay the number required in the terrine and pour the boiling consomme on them they will not require heating in the soup it may be observed that raw spinach pounded and rubbed through a sieve and boiled red beet may be used to color the meat green and red and the rest left white the constantly is then called wholesome a door Lyon consomme o of fillet pour one quart of Claire consomme to boil mix 1 egg 1 dessert spoon full of flour 1 tablespoon full of milk a pinch between forefinger and thumb of salt and a dust of pepper into a batter rub a nutmeg once back and forth over the grater and stir when the soup boils pass this batter through a fine strainer into it it should look like threads call samay alla saving yay found two ounces of breast of cooked chicken until it will pass through a wide sieve mixed with it two eggs three tablespoonfuls of milk twelve drops of almond essence a scant salt spoonful of salt as much nutmeg as will go on the end of a penknife blade and a dust of cayenne when well blended fill three or four small round muffin pans well greased and steamed slowly twenty minutes or until set turn out very carefully let them cool then cut them into fancy shapes and serve in one quart of boiling consomme a few asparagus points boiled until just tender but not mushy are to be dropped in the last thing potage a la hollandaise for this will be required one quart of veal or chicken stock two ounces of butter one ounce of flour 4 yolks of eggs half a pint of cream one Gill of green peas one Gill of boiled carrots one Gill a boiled cucumber one teaspoon full of fresh tarragon chopped fine one teaspoon full of sugar and one teaspoon full of salt trim the carrots and cucumber with a very small scoop or cutter the size and shape of peas cook them just tender and no more in boiling water put the stock on to boil skim if necessary add the salt and sugar break the eggs into a bowl add the cream to them and beat them till well mixed this forms a liaison make the butter and flour into a paste in a bowl for half a gill of cold stop to it then enough hot stop to dissolve it when nitch smooth stir it into the boiling stock let it boil then remove from the fire and stir in very carefully to prevent curdling the liaison of eggs and cream let it come to the boiling point but not boil or it will curdle strain it into a clean stew pan and add the vegetables that all get hot together then strew in the tarragon chestnut soup pureed amaryl slit 25 large chestnuts at each end put them in boiling water and boil 10 minutes drop them into cold water and remove both the outer and inner skin melt three ounces of butter in a saucepan put in the chestnuts and saute toss them about for a few minutes but do not brown them then add a pint and a half of rich white stock and let the nuts boil in it until very tender when they must be rubbed through a fine sieve boil up again add half a pint of cream a teaspoon full of powdered sugar a teaspoon full of salt less if the stock be salted and a pinch of pepper princess soup cut a chicken in pieces wash it butter stew pan put in the chicken with a blade of mace an onion a bay leaf and 12 white peppercorns let this simmer closely covered 10 minutes shaking it often to prevent it's browning then put to it 2 quarts of hot veal stock and simmer 1 hour put into another stew pan 2 ounces of flour and 2 ounces of butter stir them together and let them bubble once then strain the liquor from the chicken to it stir well and cook a few minutes take the white meat from the bones of the chicken pound it in a mortar very fine stir it to the stock then rub through a soup strainer add just before serving half a pint of fresh cream and the juice of half a lemon this soup must be made hot but not boil after the chicken pulp and cream are added potage olive oil well two ounces of macaroni chill tender but not broken throw it into cold water put three pints of white stock to boil cut the macaroni into lengths half an inch long beat three yolks of eggs in a bowl with a Gill of cream throw the macaroni into the soup when it boils removed from the fire add the cream and eggs and an ounce of grated Parmesan cheese stir till the soup reaches the boiling point but by no means let it boil after the cream and eggs are added or it will be spoiled saut soup always in the proportion of a moderate teaspoon full of salt to the court if the stock is seasoned only add salt for the cream eggs etc use just a suspicion of cayenne in making a soup to which eggs are the utmost care is required yet not any more than in making custard the main point is to let the eggs come near enough to the boiling point to thicken yet far enough from it not to curdle this a little patience will accomplish by watching and removing the saucepan for a few seconds as the boiling point approaches then returning it do this once or twice til the opaque creamy appearance shows the eggs are done end of chapter 6 chapter 7 of choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Betty bee choice cookery by Katherine Owen chapter 7 fish entrees instead of giving recipes for cooking fish hull for which excellent directions are to be found in several modern cookery books recipes for fish entrees will be substituted they are now frequently served at the fish course and by their convenience and economy as well as the variety they afford are likely to grow in favor another point for them is that they can often be made hours before and simply heated when needed thus relieving the cook of the most critical part of her work at the time when she needs her attention free some of these entrees will be more suited for breakfast luncheon or supper dishes than to proceed a heavy dinner such for instance as the preparation of oysters when they have been also served before soup but the recipes are included here for their intrinsic worth fillet of cod a la normal but are attend ish lay on it three slices of cod moderately thick an inch to an inch-and-a-half who are over them one wine glass of white wine place a buttered paper over them and bake in a moderate oven 15 minutes reduce another glass of wine in a stew pan by simmering add to it half a pint of white sauce 12 small oysters bearded and blanched 12 small kernels and 12 button mushrooms season with pepper and salt simmer 1 minute only or the oysters will Harden place the slices of fish on a hot dish pour the sauce over them placed the oysters mushrooms and quenelles in groups and the corners of the dish lobster souffles cut up the mean of a boiled hen lobster into neat dice showing as much of the red as possible prepares many small ramekin or souffle cases as may be required by pinning bands of writing paper round them 2 to 3 inches higher than the case take three tablespoonfuls of mayonnaise half a pint of stiff aspic jelly and a Gill of tomato sauce in which a teaspoon full of gelatin has been dissolved every utensil used must be ice-cold the jelly must be quite cold but not set put the tomato sauce the jelly and the mayonnaise which should be left on the ice till the last thing into a bowl set in another bowl of pounded ice whisk them together until they begin to look white and stir the lobster in it with a teaspoon full of very finely chopped chervil and tarragon fill the souffle cases piling the dressing high put them on a dish on ice when they are set carefully remove the paper bands sprinkle a little dried and sifted lobster coral over the tops and serve Coquille upon pick the shells from four dozen prawns mixed with 1/3 the quantity of mushrooms slightly stood in a tablespoon full of butter and a soft spoon of salt the mushrooms must not be brown add four tablespoonfuls of a lemon sauce fill the shells which must be well buttered dress each over with fine breadcrumbs which have been carefully fried a golden brown put them in a cool oven 20 minutes only get thoroughly hot but not to cook Coquille of salmon or halibut take one pound of cold halibut or salmon breaking into small pieces putting in a stew pan with half a soft spoonful of salt and a tiny pinch of pepper and a half pint of white a tablespoon full of very thick cream and a teaspoon full of anchovy sauce stir well and let all get hot but are some shells sprinkle over with a few fried crumbs fill with the mixture cover with the fried crumbs and put them in the oven to get thoroughly hot serve on a napkin salmon on papillote cut some slices of salmon into cutlets the right size for serving make paper cases to fit them then cover each slice with the following mixture two tablespoonfuls of salad oil beaten with the yolk of an egg 1 teaspoonful of parsley chopped 1 shallot chopped and one anchovy all these must be chopped as finely as possible 1/2 Saul spoonful of salt and a grain of cayenne mix spread on the fish envelop each piece in a well-buttered case fastened up by pinching the paper well and bake half an hour serve in the papers fillet of Saul Allen or moaned in speaking of Saul one of course means the flounder which is coming to be called the American soul and when fillet does make a fair substitute for the real thing and it is suitable for cooking in every way that the English soul can be used except whole a boiled flounder without filleting or a flounder fried whole as is so often done with sole would be very coarse fillet 2 flounders in cities this will be done by the fishmonger but in the country it may have to be done in the kitchen there are four directions for doing it will be a pendant lay the fillets neatly trimmed and shaped into a thickly buttered pan or dish either fireproof porcelain or any other that can go to table pour over them a glass of sherry and four tablespoonfuls of consomme cover with oiled paper and bake ten minutes in a moderate oven take out the pan pour over the fillets half a pint of sauce Normand return to the oven for five minutes and serve in the pan Sol la Loire Lea make a frying batter thus mix one tablespoon full of milk with two ounces of flour and a tables full of salad oil to a smooth paste then add two yolks of eggs and the whites whipped firm with a quarter of a salt spoonful of salt mixed with an upward movement of the spoon so as not to deaden the whites of eggs set it aside while you prepare the sole it's a tablespoon full of salad oil a teaspoon full of chili vinegar a teaspoon full of tarragon vinegar a teaspoon full of parsley and one of onion chopped exceedingly fine a scant salt spoonful of salt and a quarter one of pepper mix all together then cut the fillets in half trimming away all ragged appearance and lay them for 15 minutes in the mixture called a marinade take them out drain them on a sieve and then dip each fillet in the batter this batter should be just thick enough to coat the fish and run slowly off not cling in a thick paste round it a French rule for testing the thickness of frying batter is to dip a spoon in it and then let it drop run off the end on a plate if it drops freely it keeps a bead like form it is Right fry each fillet in a wire basket three minutes in very hot deep fat serve with fried parsley turbines of soul a laruen is as these require a little of the same mixture as we'd be used for lobster cutlets or croquettes it is good management to have them when lobster is required for something else the mixture for the cutlets is made as follows less than 1/4 of it would be required for the turbines remove all the flesh from a boiled hen lobster chop its small wash dry and pound the coral with an ounce of butter take 1 Gill of white sauce mix the lobster coral and a tablespoon full of cream with it and boil 5 minutes mix in the lobster with a little salt unless the lobster is salt enough and a grain of cayenne this made into cutlets egged crumbed and fried is excellent but our purpose now is to use it for stuffing take as many fillets soul as required spread the lobster mixture on each roll them up run a toothpick through them to keep them in shape trim till each will stand put them on a buttered baking sheet cover with buttered paper and bake ten minutes chop up two truffles two hard-boiled yolks of eggs and a tablespoon full of parsley each chopped separately take up the turbines pour over them half a pint of Cardinal sauce and ornament the turbines one with the truffles one with the yolk of egg and one with parsley so on alternately directions for filleting flounders take a sharp knife cut away the fins all around the fish and split the flounder right down the middle of the back then run the knife carefully between the flesh and bones going towards the edge you have now detached 1/4 of the flesh from the bone to the other half in the same way and when the back is thus entirely loose from the bone turn the fish over and do the same with the other side you will now find you can remove the bone hole from the fish detaching as you do so any flesh still remaining the bone then you have two halves of the fish and you have four quarters of solid fish to remove the skin take the tail and firmly between the thumb and forefinger of the left hand hold the skin side downward on the board and with your knife make an incision across the flesh then keeping the skin firmly between your thumb and finger push the knife between it and the flesh slightly humoring it to prevent tearing the flesh the skin parts quite easily but no attempt must be made to cut the fish from it end of chapter 7 chapter 8 of choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by joseph Tabler choice cookery by Katherine Owen chapter eight various ways of serving oysters oysters a la Villa wah scald or blanch some large oysters dry them then draw them into some very thick viler wah sauce let them get hot in it but not boil take them out one by one be sure they are thickly coated with the sauce have a large dish heaped with sifted crumbs or cracker meal as you lift each oyster from the sauce lay it on the meal turn it gently over in the meal so that a light coat adheres and the sauce is by no means rubbed off place them on an oiled plate where they will get quite cold so that the sauce may chill and form a whitish glaze under the crumbs beat two eggs with two tablespoonfuls of water and when free from strings dip each oyster in the egg using a small fork let superfluous egg drip off for a moment then lay the oyster again on a deep bed of cracker crumbs cover well Pat very gently and lay each as you do it on a dish sprinkled with them fry two minutes in very hot deep fat being careful the oysters do not touch each other if I have made these directions as clear as I hope it will be understood that each oyster has a rich creamy coating under the crumbs and every effort must be made to avoid breaking the outer shell of egg and crumb for this reason the fat should be heated to 400 degrees but although great care in handling is necessary they are not difficult to succeed with when that care is given moister kebabs there are two ways of preparing these dainty's and I give both for those who cannot eat bacon the first will probably be acceptable for kebabs of any kind silver or plated skewers are proper although very slender wooden ones may be used put in a stew pan a small onion chopped very fine a dessert spoon full of parsley and a dozen mushrooms also chopped let these fry 1 minute in a large tablespoon full of butter add a dessert spoon full scant of flour stir all together then drop in as many fat oysters as are required they must have been blanched in their own liquor and the beards removed stir all round and add three beaten yolks of eggs one at a time taking care they do not curdle but get just thick enough to cling around the oyster string six oysters on each little skewer basting with the sauce wherever it does not adhere let each skewer cool then roll the hole in beaten eggs and abundant cracker meal so that the skewer will seem to be run through a sausage lengthwise fry two minutes and very hot deep fat serve on a napkin allow one skewer to each person two minutes if the fat be sufficiently hot we'll fry oysters a pale yellow brown they should never take longer than this for oysters Harden and shrink if overdone in the least for this reason the use of a pyrometer when possible saves mistakes and trouble such articles as oysters smelts or any small things should be fried at temperature of 380 degrees to 400 degrees it must be remembered that all fried articles darken after they leave the frying kettle and therefore a very pale yellow becomes a golden color on the dish kebabs number two this is the recipe given by the author of the well known pitch Lee books and is admirable take the beards from as many fat fair sized oysters as required you require bacon of which the fat is thick enough through to allow circles being cut from the slices as large as the oysters cut the bacon very thin get a cutter the size of the oysters trim them with it then cut eight circles of bacon for six oysters put first a piece of bacon then an oyster then more bacon on each little skewer till there are six oysters with a piece of bacon between each through the center and one at each end string them very evenly take a very little Cayenne on the tip of a knife and a salt spoon full of salt mix this with two beaten eggs to which two tablespoonfuls of water have been added dip each skewer of kebabs in this let them drip an instant then lay them on a deep bed of crumbs or cracker meal cover them thoroughly shake them then dip again into the egg if this has become full of crumbs strain it and again lay them in the meal shake lightly again and arrange each skewer of kebabs in a frying basket and fry 2 minutes I have spoken in the foregoing directions for crumbing of using plenty of meal and experience tells me that the rule with those unfamiliar with proper methods is to use so little that a plateful would be considered plenty with this quantity no good work can be done you need to turn on to a board or dish at least a quart of crumbs or a whole box of cracker meal this will enable you to smother the article until every part is covered instead of sprinkling a little over and under which generally falls off as fast as put on and leaves a surface yellow with egg and parts as you must do if a small quantity only is used all the meal that is left must be carefully sifted and put away if the small masses of egg and crumb which will be mixed with it are not sifted out the cracker meal cannot be used again there must also be plenty of egg used for dipping moistures in aspic for these very old molds aren't needed or the small fireproof china souffle cases which imitate paper may be used darriel is a small straight sided tin mould holding rather less than a gill they will be found at large house furnishing stores or a tin man could easily make them they being in fact like deep corn muffin pans if they are made to order avoid getting them too large 3 inches deep by 2 across we'll be large enough fill these molds with a speck jelly nearly cold set them on ice while you prepare the oysters which must be bearded and cooked till plump in butter but not allowed to color when cool cut them in half throw them into some stiff bechamel which must be warmed till like thick cream sprinkle with a dust of cayenne lay the oysters to get cold that the bechamel may harden on them scoop the center very carefully out of the molds of a speck leaving a half inch thickness all round fill the center's with the oysters pour in more aspect cold but not set and put on ice for a few hours or til ready to serve the aspect from the center's should have been preserved and used to chop with more to garnish the dish turn the molds out very carefully and garnish with chopped aspic and watercress or parsley it is of course understood that bechamel sauce cold is like blanc maj and that anything coated with it will be enveloped in white jelly not in a sticky white sauce if b'shem al does not become white jelly when cold the stock of which it is made is not stiff enough lobster in aspic is prepared as for salad the solid meat cut in dice and rolled in mayonnaise then in chopped chervil or parsley then proceed exactly as for the oysters oysters ala tatar the oyster shells for serving oysters ala tatar must be of good shape and exquisitely clean therefore when using oysters on the half-shell always pick out any that may be deep yet stand well and have a good shape scald and scrub them and keep for use scald as many Fatboy stirs as required in their own liquor till firm 3 minutes at boiling point will usually do this the oysters must be just plump yet if underdone they will be flabby put them on ice choose as many tiny Li as you have oysters from the heart of a lettuce they must all be of a size or trimmed so and the size only just large enough to line the shells without coming over them lay a leaf on each shell cut each oyster in half lay four halves in pyramid fashion on the lettuce leaf and mask the top of each just before serving with the Tatar sauce allow 2 to each person end of chapter 8 chapter 9 of choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Betty bee choice cookery by Katherine Owen various culinary matters this little book does not pretend to go into what may be called the principles of cooking except insofar as they are involved in the production of all choice cookery and where it is considered that a principle is little-known or too little attended to the effort will be made to give an emphasis by reiteration here my principles of cooking I mean the simple rules by which roasting boiling stewing etc are successfully accomplished any book or series of articles written a dozen years ago would have been of no real use without these rudiments but within that period there have been cooking schools started and cookery books written so exceedingly exact in directions that it will be unnecessary to repeat them in choice cookery which does not pretend to include family cooking for this reason the cooking of joints of meat will not be entered into nevertheless there are certain rudiments of cooking which are not dwelt on usually in books they are taught in the cooking schools and those of my readers who have had the advantage of attending them will not need the instruction here given but I meet with many women who devote much time to the art of cooking and who have taught themselves by book annex merriment all they know who yet when told to chop a small quantity of herbs very fine will struggle and chop almost leaf by leaf in their faithful endeavour to carry out the direction others less faithful finding their method chop some parts fine and leaves some leaves almost whole let it go at that with the reflection that that must do as it would take all day to get them all one degree of fineness so although it may seem almost too trivial a point to need mention we will go into the matter of herb chopping lemon grating etc that the simple operations may be performed easily and in a very short time to chop herbs use the leaves only never the stems let them be fresh and crisp or if wilted leave them in water for a time gather the leaves firmly between the thumb and three fingers of the left hand shave them through with a sharp knife as you push them forward under it the process resembles shaft cutting by hand machine turn them around gather them up again and cut across them in the same way then finish by chopping quickly holding the point of the knife with the left hand and bringing it down on the little heap of herbs with the right always gathering them together as fast as the chopping scatters them five minutes will chop a tablespoon full of mint or parsley almost to pulp a sharp steel knife and a small board must be used not the chopping bowl French books often direct so much Fein air to be used English books mean the same thing when they call for sweet herbs and a mixture of one part marjoram two parts thyme and three parts parsley is meant by both the grading of a lemon is a most simple operation and it may seem that everyone must know how to do it but this is far from being the case as many dishes of curdled custards and sauces are caused by this fact the right way in this case is very important the object of using grated rind of lemon is to obtain the fragrance and flavor which differ very greatly from any extracts however good now the whole of the oil which contains this fragrance is at the surface is in fact the yellow portion of the rind therefore this and only this must be removed with the greater the white part underneath is bitter and will cause milk or cream to curdle but it contains no particle of lemon flavor yet when lemon flavor is called for the lemon is often graded right down to the pulp in parts while the yellow rind is left on in patches a lemon should be graded evenly beginning at the end and working round it using a small surface of the grater as possible to prevent waste the habit of turning the lemon as you grate comes as easily as to turn an apple under the knife when peeling generally twice across the grater and back between each turn will remove all the essential oil but while guarding against grading to deeply care must be taken to remove the whole of the yellow surface a well graded lemon should be exactly of the same shape as before have no deep scores into the pith and have an oily looking surface perhaps before proceeding to the preparation of the combination dishes known as made dishes or entrees a few words may be useful to those readers whose ambition to accomplish results may cause them to defeat their own ends to such I would say go slowly never attempt the more difficult thing until the simpler one is beyond chance of failure thus in following the instructions in this book the wiser women will have accomplished perhaps each week one or two things they may have selected and it must not be forgotten the plan of the work is that one recipe shall serve as a key to many others a great many will very likely have delayed trying to make the sauces until the dish for which they will be required is given this is a mistake because it is less annoying to fail with the sauce with no dish depending on it then say when you have decided to have soul I love you off the soles being ready and failed with the sauce I hope that no failure will come to anyone trying the recipes here given but in some cases especially in sauce is thickened with eggs a seconds diverted attention may cause failure without fault of the cook therefore it is best to make single experiments when there is no danger of being disturbed and when there's nothing else to be attended to the successful result need never be lost for in the case of sauces they can be reheated the next day in a bomber II or pan of hot water the same with the soups and indeed most other things except souffles and omelets but above all things never try a recipe for the first time the day you wish it to appear perfect on your table try it long before and if you fail make the same thing over again reading the directions very carefully some trifling caution or a precaution may have escaped you no one ever learns to draw so simple a thing as a circle who is discouraged at the first bad curve and leaves it for easier lines keep on it the thing you select to do until you succeed always choosing and perfecting the easiest thing in each class first end of chapter 9 chapter 10 of choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Betty bee choice cookery by Katherine Owen on trace filet of beef this favorite dish with French and Americans may be roasted whole or cut so as to serve individually to roast it whole it must be trimmed perfectly round and either larded or not as taste may dictate a fillet weighing four pounds should be roasted three quarters an hour in a sharp oven it may then be served a la Chateaubriand of the sauce of that name with horseradish sauce or brown mushroom sauce brown sauce with mushrooms added to serve individually fillets are prepared in the following way cut a fillet into 8 slices 3/4 of an inch thick trim the slices into perfect circles all exactly the same size flatten them put them in a hot pan and saute for seven or eight minutes in two ounces of butter dress them round a dish and pour over them the sauce from which the dish will take its name filet de boeuf a la bearnaise serve with half a pint of Bearnaise sauce filet de boeuf Oshun pineal dress as before leave in the center of the dish room for a mound of stewed mushrooms pour over the fillets half a pint of rich brown sauce serve these dishes as soon as cooked the meat is spoiled by waiting I have received several letters from readers living where lobster is only to be had in Cannes asking if there is no substitute for the coral in making Cardinal sauce canned lobster frequently contains a great deal of coral which is as good for coloring and flavoring as the fresh this can only be known however before opening when the cancer of glass the pulp of red beetroot passed through a sieve and added to white sauce or mayonnaise gives a beautiful red tint but the flavor while excellent for a salad or vegetable sauce would be unsuitable for serving with fish Grenadines of beef with mushrooms and quaver odd sauce take as many slices of filet of beef cut three quarters of an inch thick as you require trim them to a pear shape three and a half inches long and three wide at the broadest part lardy's with bacon and put them into a saute pan with a Gill of brown sauce and a glass of sherry half the sauce if there are very few Grenadines let them cook gently for 15 minutes to solve a piece of glass the size of a walnut by putting it in a cup which is set in boiling water when dissolved take up the Grenadines dish them in a circle and glaze them a brush is properly used for this purpose but the glaze can be spread with a knife dipped in hot water fill the center of the circle with a pyramid of small mushrooms mixed with a Gill and a half of poivre sauce filet of beef allegory tania cut two pounds of fillet into neat slices an inch thick slit them with a small French boning knife or small penknife in such a way that you form a pocket in each of the mouth or opening of which is smaller than the pocket itself this can be done by laying the fillet flat on a board laying your hand on the top of it making the slit two inches wide then with the point of the knife enlarging the slit inside but not the entrance to it the opening should extend halfway through into this put a forcemeat made of horseradish sauce and macaroni boiled and cut fine the forcemeat must be used sparingly so as not to increase materially the thickness of the fillet fasten the opening of each with a wooden toothpick saute these fillets for 15 minutes glaze them as directed in last recipe arrange them in a circle with a pyramid of tiny potato balls in the center for a rich brown sauce round mutton cutlet solid oops I'll cut some cutlets from the neck of mutton leaving two bones to each trim very carefully remove the upper part of one bone split the cutlets without separating them at the bone spread some thick duxelle sauce inside fold the cutlets together run a toothpick through them and boil for four minutes on each side over a hot fire have a layer of chopped mushrooms stewed in butter in the dish lay the cutlets on it pour over some duxelle sauce and garnish with truffles cut in very thin circles mutton cutlets alla milanese take six cutlets from a neck of mutton French char many butchers term them mix equal quantities of grated Parmesan cheese and cracker meal dip the cutlets into a rich brown thick sauce then into the cracker and Parmesan shake off loose crumbs dip them now into beaten egg in which a little salt and very finely chopped parsley and chives have been mixed and then dip them a second time in the parmesan and breadcrumbs drop them into a kettle a very hot fat in four minutes they will be done do not fry more than four at a time as too many cool the fat dish them in a circle with spaghetti dressed with parmesan in the center it seems to me just hear that before giving further recipes for fried articles I had better make sure that all my readers understand the process of frying in deep fat I have used the word saute to and although no doubt both these processes are familiar to most readers who would be likely to practice choice cookery for those who are not adept many of the recipes would be impossible to execute frying once understood is so easy a process one wonders that self you should excel in it to those who are not sure of themselves I recommend practice a couple of hours practice and careful observance of rules will enable a bright woman to fry successfully for this practice you may prepare several different articles and fry one after the other one are two very soft and creamy croquettes one or two breaded articles especially such as are dipped in thick sauce before being crumbed etc the principles on which articles that are very soft and creamy underneath the surface of egg and crumbs our fried is this the creamy substances whether rich sauce like duxelle and veal wok or the cream used to mix croquettes must always be made of stock that will jelly when cold the sauce is used warm and the articles are put to chill on ice so that they are in a gelling condition now the fat into which they are plunged must be so hot but it sets the coding of egg and crumbs which forms a thin shell as it were before the jelly has had time to melt the shell once formed the interior cooks in the intense heat very quickly if the fat were not hot enough croquettes would go all to pieces and articles coated with sauce would lose the better part of it to fry you require a stew pan or iron kettle those called Scotch kettles are best as they set into the range readily a frying pan is only useful for sauteing in little fat articles to be fried must be immersed in fat and no frying pan is deep enough to do this safely put two to three pounds of clarified dripping or lard into the kettle and let it get very hot this will be after it ceases to sputter sometime after perhaps but you must now begin to watch for smoke to rise from the center have near you some little squares of breadcrumb drop one in from time to time only when it colors immediately is the fat hot enough at this point no time must be lost and you're frying begins of course you will have the articles you intend to fry right at hand you will also need a large dish in which you'll a common butcher's wrapping paper often called kitchen paper and a perforated skimmer some like a frying basket and for very small things it is an assistance but for croquettes cutlets etc it is not necessary they can be laid on the skimmer and dropped in the fat the easiest and safest way to fry is to use a cooking thermometer pyrometers or fry ma meters they are sometimes called and let the fat be 380 degrees for croquettes oysters and articles that only require two minutes cooking 360 degrees for cutlets and heavier articles the time required for articles to cook in the frying kettle seems astonishingly short for instance a breaded chopped will be cooked to a medium degree in two and a half minutes well done in three minutes but it must be remembered that he is intense croquettes must never be left longer than two minutes while whitening which however requires special instructions to fry without getting them into a cake need less than a minute potatoes require longer than most things but the fat need not be cooler at first as would seem necessary because they are so full of water even when well dried that they cool the fat rapidly sauteing a word that would be expressive of the process in English would be a boon to riders on cooking the process generally meant by frying is really sauteing yet so general has been the misconception among all but professed cooks that one has to take the precaution in giving directions for fine to say fry in deep fat it ought to be understood that to fry is to immerse in hot fat if some terms suitable for kitchen use could be found half the difficulty would be over in Old English books a very fair translation was used they told you to toss the article in butter but though it rendered saute jump fairly it did not express the process there is neither tossing nor jumping about it unless an occasional shake to the pan be called so and as flat frying dry frying are awkward the sooner we boldly take saute into common use and let it become a kitchen word as familiar as fricassee which surely must have been very unfamiliar once the better to saute although every Bridget or Gretchen fancy she can do it requires nicety and care to do it well and is far more difficult than frying in deep fat the pan requires to be hot also the fat or butter used which should cover the bottom of the pan a bright fire is required things that take long to cook require more fat than those that require but a short time effort must be made to adjust the proportion as adding called fat prevents browning veal cutlets and many other things are far better sauteed and fried the articles sauteed required to be watched that they do not burn yet they must not be too often turned or they will not Brown except of course such things as our chopped which require frequent stirring up in speaking of chilling articles coated with sauce to be fried I omitted to give the caution that in the case of meats care must be taken not to leave them long enough to freeze the meat end of chapter 10 chapter 11 of choice cookery this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Betty bee choice cookery by Katherine Owen chapter 11 entrees of mutton cutlets or chops mutton cutlets ala douches take as many cutlets or French chops as required stir them in stock with a small bouquet of herbs very gently until they are perfectly tender take them up skim the stock and strain it return to a small saucepan and reduce the liquid to a glace dip each cutlet in the glaze and lay it aside have ready what cooks now call a panada made of a Gill of thick white sauce two yolks of eggs stirred into it and allowed to approach the boiling point but not to boil this of course must be done in a double boiler or the eggs will curdle chop a dessert spoonful of parsley very fine parboil and chop also very fine three onions pound thoroughly in a mortar 8 mushrooms stir these all into the thick sauce with a soft spoonful of salt and a quarter 1 of pepper rule each cutlet in this force meat if found too stiff to adhere properly moisten with a little cream or a little liquor from the mushrooms lay them on a fireproof dish and cover with breadcrumbs and bits of butter bake them until they are a golden brown serve with ground soubise sauce Liam cutlets uncle : trim and cut six lamb cutlets 3/4 of an inch thick flatten them a little to make them of equal size and thickness flour them and saute them in butter five minutes the fire must be sharp because they must be a nice brown on both sides arrange them around an entree dish with a Gill of brown sauce poured outside and a pint of filet of cucumber in the center to prepare fillet of cucumber cut firm fresh cucumbers lengthwise through the middle remove seeds and all soft parts cut into inch links and into Olive shapes all the same size put them into a stew pan with an ounce of butter a pinch of pepper a salt spoonful of sugar and one of salt and let them stew until quite tender without acquiring any color to do this the stoop in must be closely covered and frequently shaken lamb cutlets with the puree of mushrooms trim and cook and serve the cutlets as in the foregoing recipe only in place of the cucumbers make a puree of mushrooms in the following way stew half a pint of button mushrooms and part of their liqueur in half a pint of white sauce until they are very tender taking care of the sauce does not burn found them in a mortar then force them through a vegetable strainer then add enough of the white sauce in which they were stood to make the puree the substance of very thick cream called lamb cutlets in mint jelly roast a piece of what butchers call the rack of lamb which is really the neck and ribs let it get cold cut from its six cutlets which trim just as if they were uncooked that is to say remove meat and fat from the bone and scrape it mask each of the cutlets and mint jelly warmed enough to be half fluid arranged very carefully round an entree dish when they are perfectly set so that the jelly will not come off have a Russian salad in the center how to prepare the salad to prepare this you require two or three small vegetable cutters of pretty shape use them to trim carrots white turnips and cucumbers into small attractive forms boil these in separate waters till tender also green peas sprays of cauliflower and very tiny young string beans throw each vegetable as it is cooked into ice-cold water to keep the color have some red beet root boiled before it is cut into shapes use equal quantities of each vegetable arrange them with peas in the center and the other since circles round studying the effect of color then dress but do not mask them with green mayonnaise at seasons when materials for russian salad cannot readily be obtained the chops may be served with the center of cucumber salad or one made of the small white leaves of lettuce cutlet showed foie Alerus for this cold dish mutton cutlets are used they must be in the finest quality and from mutton not newly killed cut as many cutlets as required trim and scrape the bone raise for an hour in a moderate oven till the meat is very tender remove and press between two dishes until they are cold then trim each cutlet into perfect shape boil a quart of strong stock which already jellies down to less than half a pint dip each chop into this glaze once or twice till they look varnished you now require a pint of stiff aspic jelly turn it out of the bowl cut one or two slices a quarter of an inch thick from it to be cut into shapes or croutons with a cutter to garnish the cutlets chop the rest of the aspic lay it round the dish and the cutlets against it with the croutons of aspect to form the outer edge the center must be filled with a Russian salad in this case stirred up with very thick mayonnaise instead of being formally arranged the mayonnaise must only be sufficient to dress the vegetables none to run into the other materials and beetroot must be added last as it scholars the sauce if stirred up in it on trays of sweetbreads sweetbreads a la suprem take two plum sweetbreads lay them an hour and strong salt and water then boil them for ten minutes in fresh water put them between two plates too flat until cold cut off all the gristle and loose skin from underneath put them to stew very gently in half a pint of good flavored stock take them up drain well and do them in half a pint of sauce supreme with a dozen small mushrooms for 10 minutes sweetbreads with oysters prepare the sweetbreads as in the foregoing recipe quarter them and put them in a stew pan with a Gill of white stock the strain liquor from two dozen oysters a soft spoonful of salt a pinch of pepper and a suspicion of nutmeg put two ounces of butter in a stew pan over the fire stir into it one tablespoon full of fine flour let them bubble together stirring the while one minute when the sweetbreads have been simmering 20 minutes pour the gravy from them to the sauce stir quickly till smooth if thicker than very thick cream add a little more stock in five minutes add the oysters keep at boiling point but not boiling till the oysters are firm and plump do not leave them in the sauce a minute beyond this or they will begin to shrink take them and the sweetbreads up and if the sauce is too thin to bear a wine glass of cream boil it rapidly down until very thick then skim and just before pouring over the sweetbreads stir in a wine glass of thick cream if it goes in earlier it may curdle it has been explained before but I repeated here that there must never be too much sauce however good to any dish and that the consistency is most important it must be thick enough to mask a spoon yet run from it freely nothing can be worse than a dab of white mush being served as sauce unless it be a quantity of thin milky sauce floating on every this is where the happy medium must be Strunk it is perfectly easy to give exact proportions to produce certain degrees of thickness and this has been done in the chapters on sauces but where these sauces are used as a medium in which to cook for instance sweet breads a certain amount of liquid must be added to prevent burning now it is impossible to say how fast this added liquid will diminish if the simmering is as slow as it should be it may lose hardly at all in which case the article stewed must be taken out and a few minutes hard-boiling given to evaporate the liquid and bring the sauce back to the proper point sweetbreads in cases prepare two sweetbreads as directed in the foregoing recipes put them in a stew pan with a thin slice of fat boiled ham half a carrot half a turnip and a small onion all cut small and laid as a bed under the sweetbreads put in a Gila broth a bouquet of herbs and half a sauce spoonful of salt with a pinch of pepper let them stew closely covered one hour turning them after the first half hour when done take them up and drain them when cold covered with thick duxelle sauce sprinkle thickly with very fine breadcrumbs make to rough paper cases butter each liberally and very carefully lay each sweetbread in one crumbed side uppermost put them in a quick of until pale brown have ready proper sweetbreads cases slip them neatly into them and serve these are excellent cold in which event they should not be shifted from the rough case until ready to serve end of chapter 11