Guide to Modern Cookery (Le Guide Culinaire) Part I: Fundamental Elements | Auguste Escoffier | *Non-fiction, Cooking | Audiobook full unabridged | English | 3/5
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Le Guide Culinaire can be regarded as the ‘Bible’ of modern cooking. It was Escoffier’s attempt to codify and streamline the French restaurant food of the day. The original text was printed for the use of professional chefs and kitchen staff; Escoffier’s introduction to the first edition explains his intention that the book be used toward the education of the younger generation of cooks. This usage of the book still holds today; many culinary schools still use it as their core textbook. The book overall is 900 pages long and contains over 2500 recipes. Part 1 is 120 pages long and describes the basic principles and techniques required for the chef, including descriptions of more than 250 recipes and preparations. (Summary by Chris Cartwright adapted from Wikipedia)
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section seven of a guide to modern cookery part one this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Joanne Roshan chapter 5 savory jellies or aspects jellies are too cold cookery what consomme is in stock are too hot if anything the former are perhaps more important for a cold entree however it may be in itself is nothing without its accompanying jelly in the recipes which I give here after I have made a point of showing how melting jellies may be obtained ie served in a sauce boat simultaneously with the cold comestibles or actually poured over it when the latter lies in a deep dish a common custom nowadays this method of serving cold entrees which I inaugurated at the Savoy Hotel with the supreme Diwali Jeanette is the only one which allows the serving of a jelly in a state of absolute perfection nevertheless if a more solid jelly were required either for the decking of cold dishes or for a molded entree there need only be added to the following formula a few gelatin leaves more or less according to the required firmness of the jelly but it should be not forgotten that the greater the viscosity of the jelly the less value will the same possess the various uses of jellies are dealt with in part two of this work where the formulas of their divers accompanying dishes will also appear 158 ordinary asks six stock for the ordinary a spec quantities for making four quarts four pounds of strung knuckle of veal three calves feet boned and blanched three pounds of strung knuckle of beef one pound of fresh pork rind blanched and with the fat removed three pounds of veal bones well broken up mode of procedure put the meats in a very clean and well tinned stockpot or stew pan at eight quarts of cold water boil and skim after the manner indicated under number one having well skimmed the stock add one ounce of salt put it on the side of the fire and let it boil gently for four hours then removed the meat taking care not to disturb the stock carefully removed the fat and garnish with one half pound of carrots 6 ounces of onions 2 ounces of leeks a stick of celery and a large fagot put the whole back onto the fire and cook gently for a further two hours strain through a sieve into a very clean Basin and leave to cool clarification of aspic when the stock prepared according to the above directions has cooled the grease that is formed on its surface should be removed then pour off gently into a stew pan of convenient size in such a way as to prevent the deposit at the bottom of the basin from mixing with the clear liquor test the consistence of the aspect when it should be found that the quantities given above have proved sufficient to form a fairly firm jelly if however this be not the case a few leaves of gelatin steeped in cold water should added being careful not to overdo the quantity now add to the stock two pounds of lean beef first minced then pounded together with the white of an egg a little shovel and tarragon and a few drops of lemon juice place the saucepan on an open fire stir its contents with a spatula until the liquid begins to boil remove it from the fire and place it on the side of the stove where it may boil gently for half an hour at the end of this time take the saucepan off the fire and remove what little grease has formed on the aspic while cooking strain through a serviette stretched and fastened across the legs of an overturned stool and let the aspic fall into a basin placed between the legs ascertain whether the liquid is quite clear and if as frequently happens this be not the case what has already been strained should once more be passed through the serviette renewing the operation until the aspic becomes quite transparent flavoring the aspic the aspic obtained as above is limpid has an agreeable savour and is the color of fine amber it now only requires flavoring according to the tastes of the consumer and the purpose for which it is intended for this operation it should be allowed to become quite tepid and the following quantities of choice wine are added to it visa fees if the wine is of a liqueur kind such as sherry Marsala Madeira etc one fifth pint per quart if it is another kind of wine for example champagne Hauk etc 1/4 pint per quart the wine used should be very clear free from any deposit and as perfect as possible and taste 159 chicken a speck the quantities of meat are the same as for ordinary a speck there need only be added to it either to oven browned hens or their equivalent in weight of roasted fowl carcasses and poultry giblets if these are handy it is always better however to prepare the stock with the hens and giblets and to keep the carcasses for the clarification this clarification follows the same rules as that of the ordinary aspect except that a few roasted fowl carcasses previously well freed from fat are added to it in the case of this particularly delicate aspect it is more than ever necessary not to overdo the amount of gelatin it should be easily soluble to the palate in order to be perfect 160 game a speck prepare this aspic stock in exactly the same way as that of ordinary aspic only substitute game such as deer Roebuck dough or hair or wild rabbit previously browned in the oven for the beef when possible also add this to the stock a few old specimens of feathered game such as partridges or pheasants that are too tough for other purposes and which suit admirably here the clarification changes according to the different flavors which are given to the aspic if it is not necessary to give it a special characteristic it should be prepared with the meat of that ground game which happens to be the most available at the time adding to the quantity used roast carcasses of feather game the respective amounts of both ingredients being the same as for ordinary a speck if on the other hand the a speck is to have a well-defined flavor the meat used for the clarification should naturally be that producing the flavor in question ie either Partridge or pheasant or hazel hen etc some aspects are greatly improved by being flavored with a small quantity of old brandy rather than use an inferior kind of this ingredient however I should advise its total omission from the aspect without aromatization the aspect though imperfect is passable but aromatized with bad brandy it is invariably spoiled Lenten aspects 161 fish a speck with white wine the stock for this aspic is prepared in precisely the same manner as fish stock number 1 the stew pan need not however be buttered previous to the insertion of the onions parsley stalks and fish bones if the aspic is not required to be quite white a little saffron may be added to it as the aroma of this condiment blends so perfectly with that of fish when the stock is prepared its consistence should be tested and rectified if necessary by means of gelatin the quantity of this substance should on no account exceed 8 leaves per quart of aspic and at the risk of repeating myself I remind the reader that the less gelatin is used the better the aspect will be the clarification should be made with fresh caviar if possible but caviar is also admirably suited to this purpose the quantities are the same as for the clarification of fish consomme number four in flavoring whitefish aspects either dry champagne or a good Bordeaux or burgundy may be used take care however one that the wine used be of unquestionably good quality to that it be only added to the aspic when the latter is already cold and on the point of coagulating as this is the only means of preserving all the aroma of the wine finally in certain cases a special flavour may be obtained by the use of crayfish which are cooked as for bisque then pounded and added to the fish stock number eleven ten minutes before straining it a proportion of four little crayfish bisque per quart of aspic is sufficient to secure an excellent aroma 162 fish aspic with red wine this aspic stock is the court bouillon with red wine number 165 which is served in cooking the fish for which the aspic is intended this fish is generally either trout or salmon sometimes also but less commonly a carp or a pike this stock must first of all have its grease thoroughly removed it should then be poured carefully away reduced if necessary and the required quantity of gelatin added this cannot be easily determined as all gelatin czar not alike and the stock may have contracted a certain consistence from its contact with the fish one can therefore only be guided by Sting's small quantities cooled in ice but care should be taken that the aspic be not too firm the clarification of this aspic is generally made with white of an egg in the proportion of one white per quart the white half whisked is added to the cold stock and the latter is put over an open fire and stirred with a spatula as soon as it boils the aspic is poured through a serviette fixed on the legs of an overturned stool the first drippings of the fluid are put back on to the serviette if they do not seem clear and this operation is repeated until the required clearness is obtained it almost invariably happens that either during cooking of the fish or during the clarification the wine loses its color through the precipitation of the colouring elements derived from the tannin the only way of overcoming this difficulty is to add a few drops of liquid carmine or vegetable red but in any case it is well to remember that the color of red wine a speck must never be deeper than sombre pink end of section 7 recording by Joanne Roshan section 8 of a guide to modern cookery part 1 this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Joanne Roshan chapter 6 the court bully owns and the marinades 163 court bouillon with vinegar quantities required for 5 quarts 5 quarts of water 3/4 pounds of carrots 1/2 pint of vinegar 1 pound of onions 2 ounces of grey salt a little thyme and bay 1/2 ounce of peppercorn two ounces of parsley stalks preparation put into a saucepan the water salt and vinegar the minced carrots and onions and the parsley thyme and bay gathered into a bunch boil allow to simmer for 1 hour rub through Tammy and put aside until wanted remarks put the peppercorns into the court bullion only 12 minutes before straining the latter if the pepper were in for too long a time it would give a bitterness to the preparation this rule applies to the formula that follow in which the use of peppercorns is also required this court bullion is principally used for cooking trout and salmon as well as for various shellfish 1/64 court bouillon with white wine quantities required for 2 quarts 1 quart of white wine 1 large fagot 1 quart of water 1/2 ounce of grey salt 3 ounces of minced and a few peppercorns preparation this is the same as for the court bullion with vinegar except that it's boiled for half an hour and is strained through Tammy remarks if the court bullion has to be reduced the quantity of salt should be proportionately less this preparation is principally used for poaching freshwater fish 165 court bullion with red wine used the same quantities as for court bullion with white wine taking care one to replace white wine by excellent red wine two to add four ounces of minced carrots three to a portion the wine and water in the ratio of two-thirds to one-third preparation the same as that of the former with the same time for boiling remarks if the court bullion is to be reduced the salt should be less accordingly when the court bullion with red wine is to constitute an aspic stock fish fumet with enough gelatin takes the place of the water the use of court bullion with red wine are similar to those of the white wine kind 166 plain court bullion the quantity of the court bullion is determined by the size of the piece which it is to cover it is composed of cold salt water the salt amounting to a little less than 1/2 ounce per quart of water 1/4 pint of milk per quart of water and one thin slice of peeled lemon in the same proportion the fish is immersed while the liquor is cold the latter is very slowly brought to the boil and as soon as the is reached the receptacle is moved to the side of the fire where the cooking of the fish is completed this court bullion which is used with larger pieces of turbot and Brill is never prepared beforehand 167 special court bouillon or bland this preparation is a genuine court bouillon though it's not used in cooking fish the quantities required for five quarts of this court bullion are a little less than 2 ounces of flour the juice of three lemons or 1/8 pint of good vinegar one and a half ounces of grey salt five quarts of cold water gradually mix the flour and the water add the salt and the lemon juice and pass through a strainer set to boil and stir the mixture the while in order to prevent the flower from precipitating as soon as the boil is reached immerse the objects to be treated these are usually cabs head or foot previously blanched sheep's trotters Koch's kidneys or combs or such vegetables as salsify cardoon etc remarks upon the use of court bouillon one quart bullion must always be prepared in advance for all fish the time for poaching which is less than half an hour except Tirpitz and Brill's 2 when a fish is of such a size as to need more than half an hour's poaching proceed as follows place under the drainer of the fish kettle the minced carrots and onions and the fagot put the fish on the drainer and cover it with water and vinegar or white wine in accordance with the kind of court bullion wanted and the quantity required add the salt boil and keep the court bullion Jen least simmering for a period of time fixed by the weight of the fish the time allowed for poaching the latter will be given in their respective formula three fish when hole should be immersed in cold court bullion when sliced in the same liquor boiling the exception to this rule are small trout a blue and shellfish four if fish be cooked in short liquor the aromatics are put under the drainer and the liquid elements of the selected court bullion x' as for example that with red or white wine are so calculated as to cover only one-third of the solid-body fish cooked in this way should be frequently basted five quart bullion for ordinary and spiny lobsters should always be at full boiling pitch when these are immersed the case is the same for small or a medium fish a blue six fish which is to be served cold also shellfish should be cooled in the court bullion itself the cooking period is consequently curtailed marinades and brines marinades play but a small part in english cookery venison or other ground game being generally preferred fresh however in the event of its being necessary to resort to these methods of preparation I shall give to formula for venison and two for mutton the use of the marinade for venison is very much debated certainly it is often desirable that the fiber of those meats that come from old specimens of the deer and boar species be softened but there is no doubt that what the meat gains in tenderness it loses in flavor the whole therefore it would be best to use only those joints which come from young beasts in the case of the latter the marinade may well be dispensed with it would add nothing to the savor of a haunch of venison such as maybe got in england well it would be equally ineffectual in the case of the Roebuck or hare a summary treatment of these two with raw marinade may well be adopted as also for deer court bully owns and marinades 67 as for cooked marinade it's real and only use lies in the fact that during stormy summer weather it enables one to pre serve meat which would otherwise have to be wasted it may moreover be used for braised venison but this treatment of game is very uncommon nowadays 168 cooked marinade for venison quantities required for 5 quarts 1/2 pound of minced carrots 1 fagot including one ounce of parsley stalks 1/2 pound of minced onions 2 sprigs of rosemary as much time and 2 bay leaves 2 ounces of minced shallots and 1 crushed garlic clove preparation heat 1/2 pint of oil in a stew pan add the carrots and onions and fry them while stirring frequently when they begin to brown add the shallots the garlic and the fagot then 1 pint of vinegar 2 bottles of white wine and 3 quarts of water cook this marinade for 20 minutes and add a further 2 ounces of salt 1/2 ounce of peppercorns and 4 ounces of brown sugar 10 minutes afterwards pass it through a strainer and let it cool before inserting the meats and B in summer the marinade very often decomposes because of the blood contained by the meat under treatment in it the only means of averting this is to boil the marinade every two or three days at least 169 raw marinade for butchers meat or venison this marinade is prepared immediately before using the meat to be treated is first salted and peppered on all sides then it's put in a receptacle just large enough to hold it and laid there in on a litter of aromatics including minced carrots and onions a few chopped shallots parsley stalks thyme and bay in proportion to the rest now sprinkle the meat copiously with oil and half as much vinegar cover the dish with oil paper and put it somewhere in the cool remember to turn the meat over three or four times a day covering it each time with a layer of vegetables this marinade is very active and is admirably suited to all butchers meat and venison provided these be not allowed to remain in it for too long a time it's very difficult to say how long the meat must stay in these marinades the time varies according to the size and quality of the joints and the taste of the consumer etc all that can be said is that three hours should be sufficient to marinade a cutlet or a scallop of Roebuck f2 and that for big joints such as saddle or leg the time should not exceed four days one seventy marinade for mutton Roebuck style is exactly the same as cooked marinade number 168 there need only be added 1 ounce of juniper berries a few sprigs of rosemary wild thyme and basil 2 extra garlic cloves and 1 quart less of water 171 marinade with red wine for mutton by substituting red wine for white in the proceeding formula the quantity of the liquid equaling that of water and by slightly increasing the quantity of aromatics an excellent marinade for mutton is obtained which in summer enables one to preserve meat otherwise perishable for some days 172 brine quantities required for 50 quarts 56 pounds of gray salt 6 pounds of saltpeter 50 quarts of water 3 and 1/2 pounds of brown sugar mode of procedure put the salt and the water in a tinned copper pan and put it on an open fire when the water boils through an appealed potato and if the latter float add water until it begins to sink if on the contrary the potato should sink immediately reduce the liquid until it is able to boy the tuber up at this stage the sugar and saltpeter are added let them dissolve and the brine is removed from the fire and allowed to cool it is then poured into the receptacle intended for it which must be either of slate stone cement or well jointed tiles it is well to place in the bottom of this reservoir a wooden lattice where on the meats to be salted may be laid for were the immersed objects to lie directly on the bottom of the receptacle the under parts would be entirely shielded from the brine if the meets to be salted are of an appreciable size they should be inoculated with brine by means of a special syringe without this measure it would be impossible to salt regularly as the sides would already be oversaturated before the center had been properly reached eight days should be allowed for salting a piece of beef or what size so ever above eight or ten pounds since the process of inoculation equalizes the salting ox tongue intended for salting besides having to be as quart bullion and marinades 69 fresh as possible must be trimmed of almost all the cartilage of the throat and carefully beaten either with the beater or roller then it must be pricked on all sides with a string needle and immersed in the liquid where it should be slightly weighted by some means or other in order to prevent its rising to the surface a medium-sized tongue would need about seven days immersion in the brine although brine does not turn as easily as the cooked marinades it would be well especially in stormy weather to watch it and occasionally boil it but as the process of boiling invariably concentrates the brine a little water should be added to it every time it is so treated and the test of the potato described above should always be resorted to end of section 8 section 9 of a guide to modern cookery part 1 this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by K hand a guide to modern cookery part 1 by Auguste Escoffier translated by James B Herndon jr. chapter 7 part one elementary preparations before broaching the question of the numerous preparations which constitute the various soup relevé and entree garnishes it will be necessary to give the formulae for the elementary preparations or what are technically called the miso n + if the various operations which go to make the miso n + or not at least summarily discussed here I should be compelled to repeat them in each formula for which they are required that is to say in almost every formula I should thus resemble those bad operators who having neglected their meson + are obliged to make it in the course of their work and thereby not only run the risk of making it badly but also of losing valuable time which might be used to better advantage elementary preparations consist of those things whereof one is constantly in need which may be prepared in advance and which are kept available for use at a moment's notice 173 anchovies filets of whether they be for hors d'oeuvres or for culinary use it is always best to have these handy after having washed and well wiped them in order to remove the white powder resulting from the little scales with which they are covered they should be neatly trimmed to the shape of extended oblongs then detach the filets from the bones by gentle pulling divide each fillet lengthwise into three or four smaller fillets put the latter into a small narrow dish or a little Bowl and cover them with oil the fillets may also be kept whole with a view to rolling them into rings 174 Anglais for egg and bread crumbing it is well to have this always ready for those dishes which are to be pomades our own glaze or as many of the recipes direct treated alone glaze it is made of well whisked eggs salt pepper and 1 dessert spoon full of oil per couple of eggs its uses the solids to be punished along ley are dipped into the preparation described above taking care that the latter coats them thoroughly whereupon according to the requirements they are rolled either in breadcrumbs or in fine rasping x' from this combination of egg with breadcrumbs or rasping so their results a kind of coat which at the moment of contact with the hot fat is immediately converted into a resisting crust in croquettes this crust checks the escape into the fat of the substance it a closes and this is more especially the case when the croquettes contain some reduced sauce where our composed of raw meats or fish whose juices are thereby entirely retained a solid prepared along lay and cooked in fat should always be put into the latter when this is very hot so as to ensure the instantaneous solidification of the egg and breadcrumbs and be objects to be treated along they are generally rolled in flour before being immersed in the Ongole for the flour helps the foregoing to adhere to the object the crust formed over the solid thus acquires a density which is indispensable 170 for a aromatics aromatics play a very prominent part in cookery and their combination with the condiments constitutes as Granada Lorraine Nair said the hidden soul of cooking their real object in fact is to throw the savour of dishes into relief to intensify that savor and to give each culinary preparation its particular stamp they are all derived from the vegetable kingdom but while some are used dry others are used fresh the first named should belong to the permanent kitchen stock they are sage basil rosemary sweet marjoram thyme and bay also to be included in the permanent stock are cinnamon ginger juniper berries nutmeg cloves mace and vanilla the last name comprised those aromatic herbs used fresh such as parsley chervil tarragon Pimpernel and common savory while under this head there may be also ink bits of common and Seville orange rind and zest of lemon rind 17b seasoning and condiments seasonings are divided into several classes which comprise one say line seasonings salt spice salt saltpeter – acid seasonings plain vinegar or the same aromatized with tarragon verjuice lemon juice and common or Seville orange juices three hot seasonings peppercorns ground pork encased pepper or mignonette paprika curry cayenne and compound spices for saccharine seasonings sugar and honey condiments likewise subdivided the three classes being one the pungent onions shallots garlic chives and horseradish two hot condiments mustard gherkins capers English sauces such as Worcester Harvey ketchup Escoffier sauces etc the wines used in reductions in braising x' the finishing elements of sauces and soups three fatty substances most animal fats butter vegetable greases edible oils and coconut butter remarks in cookery it should be borne in mind that both excellence and eatable nests depend entirely upon a judicious use and irrational blending of the aromatics seasonings and condiments and according as the latter have been used and apportioned their action will be either beneficial or injurious to the health of the consumer in the matter of seasoning there can be no question of approximation or half-measures the quantities must be exact allowing only of slight elasticity in respect of the various tastes to be satisfied 175 clarified butter a certain quantity of clarified butter should always be kept ready in handy to prepare this butter put 1 pound to melt in a saucepan large enough to hold twice that amount place the saucepan on the side of the fire over moderate heat remove all the scum which rises to the surface and when the butter looks quite and all foreign substances have dropped to the bottom but the liquid carefully away and strain it through muslin 176 bouquet garni the name is given to those little bunches of aromatics which when the contrary is not stated are generally composed in order to weigh one ounce of 8/10 ounce of parsley stalks and roots 1/10 ounce of bay leaves in 1/10 ounce of time these various aromatics are put neatly together so that no sprig of the one sticks out beyond the others and they are properly strung together 177 chervil chopped chervil clean of the chervil and removed the stalks wash dry it well while tossing it then chop it finely and put it aside on a plate in the cool if it is not for immediate use concussed serval proceed as above except that instead of chopping it compress it between the fingers and slice it after the manner of as chaff cutter con cast and chopped chervil are if possible only prepared at the last moment chervil Boucher's the blue shades are greatly used in the finishing off of soups they are practically the serrated portions only of the leaves which are torn away in such a manner as to show no trace of the veining x' they are immersed in water and at the last moment withdrawn so asked to be added raw to either soups or boiling costs amazed 178 rasping x' golden wrappings are obtained by pounding and passing through a fine sieve bread crusts which have been previously well dried in the oven white rasping czar similarly prepared except that very dry white crumb is used 179 peeled channeled and zested lemons lemons are greatly used in cookery as dish and comestibles Arnage when a whole lemon is used for marinades of fish for the bronx etc it is well to peel it to the pulp ie to remove the peel and the whole of the underlying white the lemon is then cut into more or less large slices according to the use for which it is attended the rind of a lemon thus peeled may be cut into bed and used in this form as the necessity arises when cutting it up flatten the rind inside uppermost on the table and with a very sharp and flexible knife remove all the white then slice the remaining peel which constitutes what is called zest into strips about one inch wide and cut these laterally in fine julienne fashion scold the resulting bits for five minutes cool them drain them carefully and put them aside until wanted sometimes instead of cutting julienne fashion the zest may be finely chopped but the rest of the process remains the same lemons are channeled by means of a little knife or a special instrument for the purpose which excises parallel ribbons from the surface of the rind and lays the white to bear a lemon channeled in this way is cut into lengthwise with the core its two extremities are removed and the two halves are cut laterally into thin regular slices to look like serrated half disks the lemon may also be cut at right angles to the core fried fish oysters and certain game are generally garnished with lemon slices fashioned according to the tastes of the cook but the simplest and perhaps the best way is to cut the lemon through the center after having trimmed the two ends quite straight and then to remove the rind roughly from the edge for whatever purpose the lemon be intended it should be as far as possible only prepared at the last moment if it must be prepared beforehand it would be well to keep it in a bowl of fresh water 180 shallots chopped shallots clean the shallots and by means of a very sharp knife cut them lengthwise into thin slices let these cling together by not allowing the knife to cut quite through them and this done turn them half round and proceed in the same way and right angles to the other cuts finally cut them laterally and this will be found to produce very fine and regular small cubes sizzled shallots the name sizzled shallots is often erroneously given to those shallots resulting from the above process but sizzled shallots are merely laterally sliced the results of which operation is a series of thin regular discs sizzled or chopped shallots should when possible only be prepared when required if however they must be treated in advance they should be kept somewhere in the cool until wanted 81 spices strictly speaking spices include cinnamon nutmeg ginger mace and the many varieties of peppers and pimenta Cayenne paprika etc these various condiments are found ready-made on the market and they need only be kept in dry airtight boxes in order to prevent the escape of their aroma but there is another kind of preparation in cookery to which the name of spice or allspice is more especially given nowadays several market varieties of this preparation exist and vie with each other for custom though in most cases they deserve it equally well formally this was not so and every chef had his own formula the following is a recipe for the spice in question which would be found useful if it had to be prepared at a moment's notice obtain the following very dry five ounces of bay leaves three ounces of thyme half of it wild if possible three ounces of coriander four ounces of cinnamon six ounces of nutmeg four ounces of cloves three ounces of ginger root 3 ounces of mace ten ounces of mixed pepper half-black and half-white one ounce of cayenne put all these ingredients into a mortar and pound them until they are all able to pass through a very fine sieve put the resulting powder into an airtight box which must be kept dry before being used this spice is generally mixed with salt number 188 182 flour for whatever use the flour is intended it is always best to sift it this is more particularly necessary in the case of flour used for coating objects to be fried for the latter being first dipped into milk must of necessity let a few drops of that liquid fall into the flour they are rolled in lumps therefore form which might adhere to the objects to be fried if the flour were not sifted 183 herbage juice this is to finish or intensify certain preparations to prepare it throw into a small saucepan of boiling water some parsley chervil and tarragon and chives in equal quantity according to the amount of juice required set to boil for two minutes drain cool press the herbs in a towel twisting the latter pound very finely and extract the juice from the resulting paste by twisting a strong towel round it keep this juice in the cool 180 for breadcrumbs thoroughly rub in a closed towel some stale bread crumb previously well broken up pass it through a fine sieve or colander according as to whether it is required very fine or not and put it aside in a convenient receptacle 185 chopped onion cut the onion finely like the shallots but if it is to be minced with a view to making it even finer it should be freed of its pungent juice which would cause it to blacken with exposure to the air to accomplish this put the onion in a corner of a towel pour plenty of cold water over it and twist the towel in order to express the water by this means the onion remains quite white 186 turned or stoned olives there are special instruments for stoning olives but failing these cut the fruit spirally from the stone with the point of a small knife keep the olives and slightly salted water 187 parsley chopped parsley if parsley be properly chopped no juice should be produced if on the contrary the operation be performed badly it amounts to a process of pounding which perforce expresses the juice in the latter case the particles cohere and they are sprinkled with difficulty over an object to remedy the shortcoming wash the chopping x' in fresh water as in the case of the onion pressing in a similar manner so as to expel the water concussed parsley is that kind which is roughly chopped when a kuelen Airy preparation is dressed with can cast parsley the latter should be added to it a few moments before serving in order to undergo a slight cooking process whereas chopped parsley may be strewn over a dish at the last moment it should be remembered that parsley when quite fresh and used in moderation is an excellent thing but should it have remained too long in the heat it becomes quite insufferable I cannot therefore to strongly urge the advisability of using it in the freshest possible State and it would even be wiser to this guarded entirely than to be forced to ignore this condition parsley sprays these are chiefly used in garnishing dishes and it is well for the purpose to make as much use as possible of the curled leaf kind after having removed the long stalks keep the sprays and fresh water until required fried parsley this consists of the sprays well drained of water after washing and immersed for an instant in very hot fat the moment it is fried carefully drain it salt it and place it in a clean towel where it may get rid of any superfluous grease it is used to dressed fried viens 188 salt two kinds of salt are used in cooking viz grey or sea salt and rock salt gray salt is used more especially for brine and in the preparation of ices as its gray color does not allow if it's being used indiscriminately be this as it may many prefer it to rock salt for the salting of stock pots roasts and grills for the last two purposes it is crushed with a roller without being pounded and the result should be such that every grain is distinctly perceptible to the touch this salt in melting over a roast or grill certainly imparts a supplementary flavour to the latter which could not be got with the use of rock salt rock salt this is found on the market in the forms of cooking and table salt if the kitchen is only supplied with cooking salt the quantity required for several days should be dried pounded in the mortar and passed through a fine sieve and then put aside in a dry place for use when wanted even table salt as it reaches one from the purveyor sometimes needs drying and passing through a sieve before being used spiced salt this condiment which serves an important purpose in the preparation of pies and Gala teens is obtained from a mixture of one pound of table salt with 3 and 1/2 ounce of spices number 181 this kind of salt should be carefully kept in a very dry place end of section 9 section 10 of a guide to modern cookery part 1 this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by malone a guide to modern cookery part 1 by Auguste Escoffier translated by James B Herenton jr. chapter 7 part 2 the various kinds of garnishes for soups relevé and entree hot or cold stuffings and forced meats 189 various panelist for stuffings Pineda's are those preparations which go to make the reason of force meats and which ensure their proper consistence when they are cooked they are not necessary for every force meat for the mousseline kind which are the finest and lightest do not require them nevertheless they are useful for varying the taste and the uses of force meats and I thought it advisable to introduce them here the reader will thus be able to use either force meets with a panada base or mousseline force meets in accordance with the requirements and his resources 190 a bread panada put 1/2 pound of the crumb of bread and 1/2 ounce of salt into one half pint of boiling milk when the crumb has absorbed all the milk placed the saucepan over a brisk fire and stir with a spatula until the paste has become so thick as not to cling any longer to the end of the special turn the contents of the saucepan into a buttered platter and lightly butter the surface of the panada in order to avoid its drying while it cools 191 B flour panada put into a small saucepan 1/2 pint of water a little salt and 2 ounces of butter when the liquid boils add 5 ounces of sifted flour thereto stirring the while over a brisk fire until it reaches the consistence described in the case of bread panada used the same precautions with regard to cooling 192 C frangipane panada put into a stew pan four ounces of sistent flour the yolks of four eggs a little salt pepper and nutmeg now add by degrees three ounces of melted butter and dilute with one half-pint of boiled milk passed through a strainer stir over the fire until the boil is reached set to cook for five minutes while gently wielding the whisk and cool as in the preceding cases one ninety three chicken forced me with panada and butter remove the tendons from and cut into cubes one pound of chicken meat pound and add 1/3 ounce of salt a little pepper and nutmeg when the meat is well pounded remove it from the mortar and place in its stead 1/2 pound of very cold panada C number 190 finally pound this banana and then add 1/2 pound of butter thereto taking care that the two ingredients mix thoroughly now put in the chicken meat and wield the pestle vigorously until the whole mass is completely mixed finally ad consecutively 2 whole eggs and the yolks of for stirring incessantly the while and seeing that each egg is only inserted when the one preceding it has become perfectly incorporated with the mass rub through a sieve put the force beat into a basin and smooth it with a wooden spoon test the forcemeat by poaching a small portion of it in salted boiling water this test which is indispensable allows of rectifying the seasoning and the consistence if necessary if it be found that the forcemeat is too light a little white of egg could be mingled with it if on the other hand it should be too stiff and a little softened butter nota bene by substituting for chicken veal game or fish and so on any kind of forcemeat may be made for the quantities of the other ingredients remain the same whatever the basic meat may be 194 chicken force mate with panada and cream for fine Canella finally pound 1 pound of chicken meat after having removed the tendons and seasoned with 1/4 ounce of salt a little pepper and nutmeg when the meat has been reduced to a fine paste add very gradually 2 ounces of white of egg finish with 7 ounces of frangipane panada number 192 and work vigorously with the pestle until the hole is amalgamated strain through a fine sieve put the force bait into a vegetable pan sufficiently large to allow of ultimately working it with ease and place it on ice for a good hour this done stir the force mate still on the ice for a few seconds with a wooden spoon then add in small quantities at a time one pint of raw cream at this stage complete the preparation by adding thereto one half pint of whipped cream it should then be found to be very white smooth and mellow test as directed in the preceding recipe and had a little height of egg if it be too light and a little cream if it be too stiff nota bene this force beat may be prepared from all butchers meats game or fish 195 fine chicken forcemeat or mousseline remove the tendons from trim and cut into cubes 1 pound of chicken meat seasoned with one ounce of salt a little pepper and nutmeg finally pound and when it is reduced to a paste gradually add the whites of two eggs vigorously working with the pestle meanwhile strain through a fine sieve but the force made into a vegetable pen stir it once more with the wooden spoon for a moment or two and combine with it gradually one point of thick fresh cream working with great caution and keeping the receptacle on ice remarks relative to mousseline force mate this like the proceeding force meets may be prepared from any kind of meat the addition of the white of egg is not essential if the meats used already possess a certain quantity of albumin but without the white of egg the forcemeat absorbs much less cream this forcemeat is particularly suited to preparations with a shellfish base in comparably delicate results are obtained by the process well it also furnishes ideal Canela for the purpose of garnishing soup in a word it may be said of muesli enforcement that whereas it can replace all other kinds none of these can replace it nota bene mousseline force mates of all cons with meat poultry game fish or shellfish may be made according to the principles and quantities given above 196 pork forcemeat for diverse uses remove the tendons of and cut into large cubes 2 pounds of fillet of pork and the same way to fresh fat bacon seasoned with one on 3/4 ounce of spiced salt number 188 chop the fillet and bacon up together or separately pound them finally in the mortar and finished with two eggs and two tablespoonfuls of brandy this force meat is used for ordinary pies and the terrine strictly speaking it is sausage meat the inclusion of eggs and this force meat really only obtains when it is used to stuff joints that are to be braised such as stuffed breast of veal or in the case of PARs and terrine the addition of the egg in these cases prevents the grease from melting too quickly and thus averts the crying of the forcemeat 197 forced mate for galantine pies and tahina remove the tendons from and cut into cubes 1 pound of fillet of veal and as much fillet of pork add to these 2 pounds of fresh fat bacon also cut into cubes season with 3 ounces of spiced salt chopped the three ingredients together or apart and then finally pound them finish with 3 eggs and 3 tablespoons falls of burnt of brandy strain through a sieve and placed in a basin we're about to serve this stuff and add to it a little boom a corresponding with the meat that is to constitute the dish for terrine pies and galantine of game 1/4 or 1/5 of the force meats weight of gratin stuffing proper to the game under treatment is added 198 veal force mate with fat or God evil remove the tendons from and cut into cubes 1 pound of filet of veal also pair that is detached skin and filaments from 2 pounds of the very dry fat of kidneys of beef first chop these up separately then combine and pound them in the mortar season with 1/2 ounce of salt a little pepper some nutmeg and pound afresh until the veal and fat become a homogeneous mass now add 4 eggs consecutively and at intervals of a few minutes without ceasing to pound and taking care only to insert each egg after the preceding one has been properly mixed with the mass spread the forcemeat thus prepared on a dish and put the latter on ice until the next day the next day pound once more and add little by little 14 ounces of very clean ice in small pieces or instead an equal weight of iced water adding this also very gradually when the god evo is properly moistened poach a small portion of it in boiling water in order to test its consistence if it be too firm add some more ice to it if on the other hand it seemed too flimsy add a little of the white of an egg for the uses of good Evo and could now see number 205 199 veal force mate with fat and cream chopped finely and apart one pound of very white filet of veal with tendons removed cut into cubes and one pound of the fat of paired kidney of beef Commando veal and the fat in the mortar and pound until the two ingredients form a fine and even paste seasoned with 1/2 ounce of salt a little pepper and some nutmeg and add consecutively two eggs and two yolks after the manner of the preceding recipe and without ceasing to pound strained through a sieve spread the force meat on a dish and keep it on ice until the next day next day pound the forcemeat again for a few minutes and add to it little by little one and a half pints of cream test as before and rectify if necessary either by adding cream or by thickening with the white of an egg 200 chicken forcemeat for Galentine pies and terrain the exact weight of the chicken meat used as the base of this forcemeat determines the quantities of its other ingredients thus the weight of meat afforded by a fowl weighing 4 pounds is estimated at 20 ounces after deducting the fillets which are always reserved hence the quantities for the forcemeat are regulated thus chicken meat 20 ounces lean pork 8 ounces filet of veal 8 ounces fresh fat bacon 30 ounces whole eggs 5 spiced salt 2 ounces brandy 1/5 pint chopped up either together or apart that chicken meat the veal the pork and the bacon put all these into the mortar pound them very finely with the seasoning add the eggs consecutively and last of all pour in the brandy remarks 1 the quantity of spiced salt varies a few grams either way according as to whether the atmosphere be dry or damp 2 according to the purpose of the forcemeat and with a view to giving it a finer flavor 1 may subject to the resources at ones disposal add a little raw trimmings of foie gras to it but the letter must not in any case exceed one-fifth of the force meat in weight 3 as a rule force meat should always be rode through a sieve so as to ensure its being fine and even for whether the foie gras be added or not chicken forcemeat may always be completed with two or three ounces of chopped truffles per pound of its volume 201 game forced mate for poisoned terrine this follows the same principles as the chicken force mate ie the weight of the game meat determines the quantities of the other ingredients the proportions are precisely the same as above as regards the veal the pork the bacon and the seasoning the procedure is also the same while the appended remarks likewise apply 202 grata forced meat for ordinary hot raised paws put into a saute pan containing one ounce of very hot butter 1/2 pound of fresh fat bacon cut into large cubes Brown quickly and drain on a dish quickly Brown in the same butter 1/2 pound of filet of veal cut like the bacon and drain in the same way now rapidly Brown 1/2 pound of pale calves liver also cut into large cubes put the veal and the bacon back into the saute pan with the liver add the necessary quantity of salt and pepper 2 ounces of mushroom pairings 1 ounce of truffle pairings raw if possible chopped shallots a sprig of thyme and a fragment of bay put the hole on the fire for 2 minutes drain the bacon the veal and the liver and put the gravy aside swill the saute pan with 1/4 pint of Madeira pound the bacon veal and liver quickly and finally well adding consecutively 6 ounces of butter the yolks of six eggs the gravy that has been put aside one third point of cold reduced espanol and the Madeira used for swelling strained through a sieve place in a taurine and smooth with the wooden spoon nota bene to make a glutton Force mate with game substitute for the veal that game meat which may happen to be required 203 Pike forced mate for canal Alleluia nez force mates prepared with the flush of the pike are extremely delicate subject to circumstances they may be prepared according to any one of the three formula numbers 193 194 195 there is another excellent method of preparing this force mate which I shall submit here as it is specially used for the preparation of pike force mate Allah Liana's pound in a mortar one pound of the meat of a pike without the skin or bones combined with this 1/2 pound of stiff frangipane seasoned with salt and nutmeg passed through a sieve and put back into the mortar vigorously worked the force meet in order to make it go here and gradually add to it 1/2 pound of melted beef fat the whole half pound however need not necessarily be beef fat beef marrow or butter may form part of it in the proportion of half the weight of the beef fat when the force mean is very fine and smooth that withdraw it from the mortar and place it in a bowl surrounded with ice until wanted 204 special stuffings for fish these preparations diverged slightly from the force mates given above and they are of two kinds they are used to stuff such fish as mackerel herring shad and so on to which they lend a condom entery touch that makes these fish more agreeable to the taste and certainly more digestible first method put into a bowl four ounces of raw chopped milk 2 ounces of breadcrumb steeped in milk and well pressed and one and a half ounce of the following fine herbs mixed in equal quantities and finally chopped chives parsley chevreul shallots sweet basil half a garlic clove crushed then two whole eggs salt pepper and nutmeg chopped up all these ingredients together so as to mix them thoroughly second method put into a bowl four ounces of breadcrumb steeped in milk and well pressed 1/2 ounce of onion and 1/2 ounce of chopped shallots slightly cooked in butter and cold one ounce of raw mushrooms chopped and well pressed in a towel a tablespoonful of chopped parsley a piece of garlic the size of a pea crushed salt pepper and nutmeg and two eggs mix it as above 205 force meatballs or canal diverse ways of molding and poaching them whatever be the required size or shape of canal there are four ways of making them one by rolling them to by molding them with a spoon three by forming them with a piping bag for by molding them by hand into the shape of a kidney one to rule canal it is necessary to keep the force meet somewhat stiff and therefore this process could not well apply to the mousseline force meets place 1/4 pound of force meet when ready on a floured board and with hands covered in flour roll the preparation until it has lengthened itself into the form of a sausage the thickness of which depends upon the required size of the intended canal cut up the sausage of forcemeat laterally with a floured knife and roll each section with the finger ends until the length it assumes is thrice that of its diameter the balls should be put aside on a floured tray as soon as they are made the poaching of rolled canal when all the force bean has been used up the balls are gently tilted into a saucepan containing boiling salted water so calculated in quantity as to allow of their not being too tightly squeezed the saucepan is covered and kept on the side of the fire until all the balls have risen to the surface and are almost out of the water they are then removed with a skimmer and placed in a bowl of cold water at last when they have properly cooled they are carefully drained on a cloth and put aside on a dish until required when the Cannell are needed for immediate use it would be better not to cool them to mold Cannell with a spoon this method may be applied to all fours mates and allows other balls being much softer as the forcemeat need not be so stiff first butter the saute pan or the tray where on the balls are to be laid by means of a brush and let the butter cool put the saute pan on the table in front and a little to the right of one on the left placed the saute pan or bowl containing the forcemeat and on the further side of the buttered saute pan there should be a receptacle containing hot water in which the spoon used for molding is inserted for ordinary Canal two coffee spoons are used one of which is kept in the hot water as stated above now with the other held in the left hand take up a little of the forcemeat just enough to fill the spoon withdraw the second spoon from the hot water and place it with its convex side uppermost on the other spoon this smoothens the upper surface of the forcemeat now with the help of a second spoon remove the whole of the contents of the first spoon and overturn the second spoon on the spot in the tray or saute pan which the ball is intended to occupy the second spoon being at once moist and hot allows the force mate to leave it quite easily in the shape of a large olive renew this operation until the whole of the forcemeat has been used the poaching of spoon molded canal when all the balls have been molded placed the tray on the side of the stove and pour enough boiling salted water over them to moisten them abundantly leave them to poach and from time to time remove the tray then when they have swollen sufficiently and seemed soft and firm to the touch drain them if they are to be used at once they should be placed directly in the sauce if they have been prepared in advance it would be well to cool them as direct and under old canal to form canal with a piping bag this process is especially recommended for small fine and light for sweet balls intended for soup garnish for besides being extremely quick it allows of making them in any desirable size or shape butter a tray or saute pan and leave it to cool but the force meeting to a bag fitted with a pipe at its narrowest end the pipe may be grooved or smooth and its size must be in accordance with that intended for the proposed balls now squeeze out the latter proceeding in the usual way and laying them very closely the poaching of canal made by the above process with ordinary or mouselina forcemeat these canal are poached in exactly the same way as the spoon molded ones the poaching of goodI volcan made with a piping bag these canal or balls are laid on a piece of fine buttered paper which in its turn is placed upon a buttered tray the guard evo must not be too stiff and the balls are laid by means of the piping bag side by side and slightly touching one another when the tray is covered push it into a very moderate oven for a few minutes the balls are poached when a thin do of grease may be seen to glisten on their surfaces on the appearance of this do withdraw them from the oven and overturn the tray carefully upon a marble slab taking care that the tray does not press at all upon the balls lest it crush them when the latter are nearly cold the paper which covers them is taken off with caution and all that remains to be done is to put them carefully away on a dish until they are wanted to mold forcemeat with the fingers this excellent process is as expedient as that of the bag and it produces beautifully shaped balls placed on the edge of a table in front of one a saucepan 3/4 full of boiling salted water the handle of the receptacle being turned to the far side now take a piece of string one yard in length double it over and tie the free ends to a weight of 2 pounds letting the two strands twist around each other this done there should be a loop at the end of the string with this loop around the handle of the saucepan and draw the string diametrically across the latter letting the weight pull the string slightly down on the side opposite to the handle when this has been affected the operator with his left hand takes some of the force mate smoothening it with a spoon and placing the spoon near the string with his right first finger he removes from its extremity a portion of the preparation about equal to the intended size of the balls this portion of the forcemeat remaining suspended on his first finger the operator now scrapes the latter across the string and the ball falls beneath into the saucepan containing the water when all the stuffing has been molded in this way the saucepan is placed on the fire to complete the poaching of the malls and the precautions indicated in the proceeding processes are observed end of section 10 reading by Malone section 11 of a guide to modern cookery part 1 this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Marian servo see a guide to modern cookery part 1 by Auguste Escoffier translated by James B Herndon jr. chapter 8 the various garnishes for soups Royales 2:06 ordinary royale put one ounce of chervil into one pint of boiling consomme cover the saucepan and let infusion proceed away from the fire for 20 minutes now pour this infusion over two eggs and six yolks beaten briskly in a basin and mix with the whisk strain through muslin and carefully removed there from the froth that has formed pour into buttered moulds poach in a van melle as in the case of cream and take great care that the water in the van Mary does not boil according to the way in which the Royale is to be divided it may be poached either in large or small Charlotte moulds but the latter large and small alike must be well buttered if the preparation be put into large molds 35 or 40 minutes should be allowed for poaching if on the other hand the molds are small about 15 minutes would suffice always let the Royale cool in the molds 2:07 des leenock or creme Rio boil one pint of thin cream and pour it little by little over one egg and six yolks well whisked in a basin season with a little salt and nutmeg strain through muslin and for the poaching follow the directions given above 2:08 chicken royale finally pound three ounces of cooked white chicken meat and add thereto three tablespoonfuls of cold bechamel put this paste in a bowl seasoned with a little salt and a dash of nutmeg dilute with one fifth pint of cream and strain through Tammy thicken this preparation with one egg and the yolk of three and poach in small or large molds in accordance with the procedure already described 2:09 game royale finally pound three ounces of the cooked meat of that game which gives its name to the preparation and add three tablespoonfuls of cold española sauce and one-fifth pint of rich cream in small quantities at a time warm the seasoning with a very little Cayenne strain through Tammy thicken with one egg and three yolks and poach as before to ten fish Royale stew in butter 4 ounces of fillet of soul cut into cubes or the same quantity of any other fish suited to the nature of the intended soup cool pound finely and add little by little two tablespoonfuls of cold bechamel and one quarter pint of cream seasoned with salt and a pinch of nutmeg and strain through Tammy thickened by means of the yolks of five eggs and poach in large or small molds 211 carrot our Krissy Royale stew gently in butter 5 ounces of the red part only of carrots cool crush in a mortar and gradually add two tablespoonfuls of bechamel and one-fifth pint of rich cream season with table salt and a pinch of castor sugar and deep in the tent of the Royale with a few drops of vegetable red strain through Tammy thickened with one egg and four yolks put into molds and poach 212 fresh piece or st. German Royale cook 1/2 pound of fresh small peas in boiling water with a bunch of Chevelle and a few leaves of fresh mint pass through a sieve and dilute the resulting puree in a saucepan with two fifths of its volume of the liquor it has been cooked in and 1/5 of cream add a little sugar the necessary salt 1 egg and 2 yolks passed through a fine strainer and poach in well buttered molds 213 various Royals Royals may also be made with leeks celery etc the procedure being as follows finely mince 6 or 7 ounces of the chosen vegetable stew the same gently and thoroughly in butter and strain through Tammy add to the resulting puree three tablespoonfuls of bechamel one fifth pint of cream 2 eggs and four yolks put in the large or small molds and poach remarks in order that these Royales may have the required delicacy I should urge the reader not to exceed the prescribed quantities of eggs and yolks these being so calculated as to exactly produce the density required to 14 the dividing up of Royales when the poaching is done take the mould or molds out of water and leave the Royale to cool in them do not turn out the mold whilst the preparation is hot as it would surely scatter it only assumes the necessary solidity for being divided up by means of the aggregation and contraction of its various constituents during the cooling process if the Royale has been poached in small molds slightly trimmed the cylinders of the Royale divide them up laterally into disks and stamp them uniformly with a plane or indented fancy cutter if the Royale has been poached in large molds withdraw it from these and place it on a serviette trim the tops cut into half-inch slices and stamp with small fancy cutters of different shapes these little divisions of Royale must always be stamped very neatly and quite regularly to 15 Shifa nod the name Shifa nod is given to a mints of sorrel or lettuce intended as a compliment for such soups as potage de saute or low jiminy etc or various clear consomme x' like julienne to prepare chiffonade first carefully shred the sorrel or lettuce and remove there from all the leaf ribs carefully wash the leaves and squeeze the latter tightly between the fingers of the left hand and the table now cut them into fine strips with a sharp knife if the chiffonade be intended for a consomme add it to the latter half an hour before dishing up it is thus actually cooked in the soup itself if as in most often the case it be intended for a thick soup it is better to let it melt well into butter to moisten it with a little consomme and to let it boil for 10 minutes before adding it to the soup whatever the purpose be for which it is made chiffonade should always be prepared with very tender sorrel or lettuce to 16 directions for soup with pastes vermicelli and the various Italian pastes should measure about 3 ounces per quart of consomme they should first be thrown into boiling salted water where they are left to poach for 3 minutes whereupon they are drained cooled and their cooking is completed in the consomme the parboiling of these pastes is necessary in order to get rid of the little agglomerations of flour which adhere to them and which would otherwise make the consummate cloudy tapioca sago Sela Piett cetera should also be a proportion at about three ounces per quart but this is only an average for the quality of this kind of products varies greatly and it is best to choose the goods of an excellent maker and in order to avoid surprises to abide by that choice these products need no parboiling they are merely sprinkled into the boiling consomme while stirring the latter and they are left to cook until the soup is quite clear the boiling should be gentle and the scum should be removed as often as it forms the time allowed for cooking naturally varies in accordance with the quality of the goods but the absolute transparency of the consomme is an infallible sign of its having been completed Brazilian Japanese and other pearls are used in the same quantities but they should poach for 30 minutes if required to be very transparent 2:17 threaded eggs beat up 3 eggs in a bowl season with salt and pepper and strain through a sieve now pour the eggs into a fine strainer hold seyn over a saucepan containing some boiling consomme and shift it about in such a wise as to let the egg fall in threads into the boiling liquid beneath and thus immediately coagulate drain the egg threads very carefully lest they break 2:18 profiteroles for soups these consist of little shoe about the size of a large hazelnut stuffed with some kinds of puree such as that of foie gras with cream or of chicken or of vegetables etc for profiteroles should be allowed for each person to make profiteroles put a few tablespoonfuls of pattaya show without sugar number two three seven four into a piping bag fitted with a smooth pipe whose orifice should be about 1/4 inch in diameter squeeze out portions of the preparation onto a tray so as to form balls about the size of a small hazelnut guild by means of beaten egg applied with a fine brush and cook in a moderate oven do not take the profiteroles from the oven until they are quite dry end of section 11 recording by marian servo see section 12 of a guide to modern cookery part 1 this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Marian servo see a guide to modern cookery part 1 by Auguste Escoffier translated by James B Herndon jr. chapter 9 garnishing preparations for releves and entrees 219 potato croquettes cooked quickly in salted water 2 pounds of peeled and quartered potatoes as soon as they seem soft to the finger drain them place them in the front of the oven for a few minutes in order to dry them and then tilt them into a sieve lying on a cloth and press them through the former without rubbing place the puree in a saute pan season with salt pepper and nutmeg add one ounce of butter and dry ie stir over a brisk fire until the puree becomes a consistent paste take off the fire complete with the yolks of three eggs well mixed with the rest and turned the paste out onto a buttered dish taking care to spread it in a rather thin layer so as to precipitate it's cooling butter the surface to prevent the preparations drying to make croquettes equal portions of this paste ie portions weighing about 1 in 1/2 ounce of it are rolled on a flour dusted board into the shape of a cork a ball or a quoi these are now dipped into an anglaise number 174 and rolled in bread crumbs or rasping x' the latter being well patted on to the surface of the croquettes lest they should fall into the frying fat let the patting also a veil for finishing off the selected shape of the objects these are then plunged into hot fat where they should remain until they have acquired a fine golden color 220 dolphine potatoes prepare as above the required quantity of paste and add thereto per pound 6 ounces of pattaya show without sugar number 2 3 7 4 mix the two constituents thoroughly da Fein potatoes are molded in the shape of small cylinders and they are treated along glaze like the croquettes 221 Duchess potatoes these are the same as the croquettes though they are differently treated they are made on a floured board in the shape of diminutive cottage loaves little shuttle shaped loaves small quat's and lozenges or rectangles they are gilded with beaten egg and when their shape is that of quat's rectangles or lozenges they are streaked by means of a small knife after this operation which is to prevent the gilding from blistering they are baked in the oven for a few minutes previous to being used in dressing the dishes they accompany to 22 marquees potatoes take one pound of Crow cut paste and add there to 6 ounces of very red reduced tomato puree pour this mixture into a bag fitted with a large grooved pipe and squeeze it out upon a baking tray in shapes resembling large meringues slightly gild their surfaces with beaten egg and put them into the oven for a few minutes before using them to dress the dish 223 ordinary or dry Duke sell the uses of Duke sell our legend and it is prepared thus slightly fry 1 teaspoon full of onions in 1 tablespoonful of butter and oil mixed add to this 4 tablespoons full of mushroom stocks and pairings chopped and well pressed in a towel with the view of expelling their vegetable moisture stir over a brisk fire until the latter has completely evaporated season with salt pepper and nutmeg and 1 coffee spoon full of well chopped parsley mixing the whole thoroughly transfer to a bowl cover with a piece of white buttered paper and put aside until wanted to 24 duxelle for stuffed vegetables tomatoes mushrooms etc put 6 tablespoonfuls of dried took cell into a small stoop and and add thereto three tablespoonfuls of half glaze sauce containing plenty of tomato crushed garlic the size of a pea and two tablespoonfuls of white wine set to simmer until the required degree of consistence is reached note well a tablespoon full of fine fresh breadcrumbs may be added to the duke cell in order to thicken it 2:25 duxelle for garnishing small pies onions cucumbers etc two four tablespoonfuls of dried duxelle add four tablespoonfuls of ordinary pork forced meat number 196 to 26 mint non preparation used in stuffing preparations Alamut non put one pint of bechamel into a vegetable pan with one half pint of soubise number one zero four and reduce to one half while stirring over a brisk fire thickened away from the fire by means of the yolks of five eggs and add four tablespoonfuls of minced mushrooms either cooked in the ordinary way or stewed in butter 2:27 Manton yon this preparation serves chiefly for covering certain large joints of butchers meat or fowl to which it imparts an appropriate flavor it is made as follows finely mince 2 medium carrots the red part only 2 onions and 2 sticks of celery taken from the heart add 1 tablespoon full of raw lean ham cut Pazin fashion a sprig of thyme and half a leaf of bay crushed stew and butter and finally swill the saucepan with two tablespoonfuls of Madeira 228 mirepoix the purpose of mirepoix in culinary preparations is the same as that of Manton jaan but its mode of use is different its constituents are the same as those of the Manton jaan but instead of being minced they are cut up into more or less fine dice in accordance with the use for which the preparation is intended instead of the ham fresh and slightly salted breast of pork may be used while both the ham and the bacon may be excluded under certain circumstances 229 fine or Bordelaise mirepoix coarse mirepoix which are added to certain preparations in order to lend these the proper flavor are generally made immediately before being used but this is not so in the case of the finer mirepoix which chiefly serves as an adjunct to crayfish and lobster this is made in advance and as follows cut into dice four ounces of the red part only of carrots the same quantity of onion and 1 ounce of parsley stocks in order that the mirepoix may be still finer these ingredients may now be chopped but in this case it is advisable to thoroughly press them in a corner of a towel so as to squeeze out their vegetable moisture the mere process of stewing not being sufficient for this purpose should this water be allowed to remain in the mirepoix more particularly if the latter must be kept some time it would probably give rise to must eNOS or fermentation put the ingredients into a small stoop an with 1 and 1/2 ounce of butter and a little powdered thyme and bay and stew until all are well cooked this done turn the preparation out into a small bowl keep it together with the back of a fork cover it with a piece of white buttered paper and put aside until wanted to 30 various South pecans this term stands for a certain preparatory method applied to a series of preparations salpicones are simple or compound simple if they only contain one product such as the meat of a fowl or of game butchers meat foie gras various fish ham or tongue mushrooms truffles etc compound if they consist of two or more of the above-mentioned ingredients which may happen to combine suitably the preparation method consists of cutting the various ingredients into dice the series of preparations arises from the many possible combinations of the products each particular combination bearing its own name thus salpicones de al fin on CA sha sear Parisienne Mont Glau etc of whichever kind however salpicones are always incorporated with a vehicular sauce which is in accordance with their constituents 231 batter for various fritters put into a bowl 1 pound of sifted flour 1/4 ounce of salt 1 tablespoon full of or melted butter and the necessary quantity of barely lukewarm water if the batter is to be used at once mix the ingredients by turning them over and over without stirring with the spoon for this would give the preparation an elasticity which would prevent its adhering to immersed solids should the batter be prepared beforehand however it may be stirred since it loses its elasticity when left to stand any length of time before using it add the whites of two eggs whisked to a froth 2:32 batter for vegetables salsify celery etc put one pound of sifted flour into a bowl with one quarter ounce of salt and two tablespoonfuls of oil or melted butter dilute with one egg and the necessary quantity of cold water keep this batter somewhat thin do not stir it and let it rest for a few hours before using 2:33 batter for fruit and flower fritters put one pound of flour into a bowl with one quarter ounce of salt and two tablespoonfuls of oil or melted butter dilute gradually with one quarter pint of beer and a little tempered water when about to use the batter mix there with the whites of two eggs whisked to a froth note well keep this batter thin if anything and above all do not stir over much 2:34 batter for oven glazed fruit fritters mix one pound of flour with two tablespoonfuls of oil a grain of salt 2 eggs added one after the other the necessary quantity of water and one ounce of sugar keep this preparation in a lukewarm place to let it ferment and stir it with a wooden spoon before using it to immerse the solids remarks batter for fruit fritters may contain a few tablespoonfuls of brandy in which case an equal quantity of the water must be suppressed to 35 Provencal preparation for stuffing cutlets alla Provencal put one pint of bechamel into a vegetable pan and reduce it until it has become quite dense thicken it with the yolks of four eggs and finish it away from the fire with a crushed piece of garlic as large as a pea and 1/4 pound of grated cheese end of section 12 recording by Mary Anne's Urvasi