Guide to Modern Cookery (Le Guide Culinaire) Part I: Fundamental Elements | Auguste Escoffier | *Non-fiction, Cooking | Audiobook full unabridged | English | 4/5
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Le Guide Culinaire can be regarded as the ‘Bible’ of modern cooking. It was Escoffier’s attempt to codify and streamline the French restaurant food of the day. The original text was printed for the use of professional chefs and kitchen staff; Escoffier’s introduction to the first edition explains his intention that the book be used toward the education of the younger generation of cooks. This usage of the book still holds today; many culinary schools still use it as their core textbook. The book overall is 900 pages long and contains over 2500 recipes. Part 1 is 120 pages long and describes the basic principles and techniques required for the chef, including descriptions of more than 250 recipes and preparations. (Summary by Chris Cartwright adapted from Wikipedia)
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section 13 of a guide to modern cookery part 1 this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by malone a guide to modern cookery part 1 by Auguste Escoffier translated by James B Herndon jr. chapter 10 part one leading keulen array operations 236 the preparation of soups the nutritious liquids known under the name of soups or of comparatively recent origin indeed as they are now served they do not date any further back than the early years of the 19th century the soups of old cookery were really complete dishes wherein the meats and vegetables used in their preparation were assembled they moreover suffered from the effects of the general confusion which reigned in the menus of those days these men you seem to have dependent in nowise for their items upon the progressive satisfaction of the consumers appetites in a long procession of dishes was far more characteristic of the meal than their judicious order in diversity in this respect as in so many others kar Hema was the reformer and if he were not strictly speaking the actual initiator of the changes which ushered in our present methods he certainly had a large share in the establishment of the new theories nevertheless it took his followers almost a century to bring soups to the perfection of today for modern cookery has replaced those stodgy dishes of or by comparatively simple and savory preparations which are veritable wonders of delicacy and taste now my attention has been called to the desirability of drawing up some sort of classification of soups if only with the view of obviating the absurdity of placing such preparations as are indiscriminately called bisque puree coulis or cream under the same head logically each preparation should have its own special formula and it is impossible to admit that one and the same can apply to all it is generally admitted that the terms veloute and creams whose introduction into the vocabulary of cookery is comparatively recent or peculiarly well-suited to supplant those of Beast and Cooley which are steadily becoming obsolete as well as that to vulgar term puree considerations of this kind naturally led me to a new classification of soups and this I shall disclose later I shall not make any lengthy attempt here to refute the arguments of certain autocrats of the dinner table who not so many years ago urged the total abolition of soups I shall only submit to their notice the following quotation from Grimaud de la Enya one of our most illustrious guests or nom East soup is to a dinner what the porch or Gateway is to a building that is to say it must not only form the first portion thereof but it must be so devised as to convey some idea of the whole to which it belongs or after the manner of an overture in a light opera it should divulge what is to be the dominant phrase of the melody throughout I am one with Grimaud in this and believe that soups have come to stay of all the items on a menu soup is that which exacts the most delicate perfection and the strictest attention for upon the first impression it gives to the diner of the success of the latter part of the meal largely depends soups should be served as hot as possible in very warm plates especially in the case of consomme when these have been preceded by cold order over hors d'oeuvre are pointless in a dinner and even when moister stand as such they should only be allowed at meals which include no soup those orders which consist of various fish smoked or in oil and strongly seasoned salads leave a disagreeable taste on the consumers palate and make the soup which follows seemed flat and insipid if the latter be not served boiling hot classification of soups this includes one clear soups too thick soups three special soups of various kinds for classical vegetable soups including some local preparations 237 clear soups clear soups of whatever nature at the base thereof may be with her butchers meat poultry game fish shellfish or turtle and so on are made according to one method only they are always clear consomme – which has been added a slight garnish in keeping with the nature of the consomme 238 thick soups these are divided into three leading classes as follows one the puree coulis or bisque to various veloute three various creams remarks though the three preparations of the first class are practically the same and generally speaking the coolies and the Beast may be considered as puree of fowl game or shellfish it is advisable to distinguish one from another by giving each a special name of its own thus the word puree is most suitably applied to any preparation with a vegetable base the term coulis is best fitted to preparations having either poultry game or fish for a base while bisque in spite of the fact that in former days it was applied indiscriminately to puree of shellfish poultry pigeons etc distinctly denotes a puree of shellfish either lobster crayfish or shrimp and so on in short it is imperative to avoid all ambiguities than to give everything its proper name or at least that name which identifies it must correctly 2:39 puree farinaceous vegetables such as akiko beans and lentils and the flowery ones such as the potato need no additional thickening ingredient since the flower or fake ulla which they contain amply suffices for the lesion of their puree on the other hand aqueous vegetables like carrots pumpkins turnips celery and herbs cannot dispense with a thickening in as their PA of themselves do not Co here in the least Co hearing or thickening elements their quantities in order to affect the coherence of vegetable puree either rice potato or breadcrumb cut into dice and fried and butter may be used the proportion of these per pound of vegetables should be respectively three ounces 10 ounces and 10 ounces breadcrumb dice prepared as described above were generally used in old cookery and they lend a mellowness to a puree which is quite peculiar to them the dilution of puree generally this is done by means of ordinary white consomme though in certain cases as for instance if the soup is a Lenten one milk is used the finishing when the puree have been strained and brought to the required consistence they should be boiled and stirred then they are placed on the side of the fire at a simmer for 25 or 30 minutes it is at this stage that they are purified by means of the careful removal of all the scum that forms on their surface when dishing up complete them away from the fire with three ounces of butter per quart of soup and pass them once more through a strainer fear of a garnishes these are usually either small fried crusts small dice of potato fried in butter a chiffon odd some kind of little brood noit's or more generally chevreul plush 240 coolies coolies have for their base either poultry game or fish the thickening ingredients used are for fowl two or three ounces of rice or a 3/4 pint of poultry veloute per pound of fowl for Game three or four ounces of lentils or 3/4 pint of game espanol per pound of game for fish a clear panada made up of french bread soaked in boiling salted milk used five ounces of bread and one good point of milk per pound of fish having strained and made up the coolies boil them while stirring except in the case of fish Cooley's which must not boil and must be served as soon as they are made then placed them in a BAM ie and butter their surfaces Leicester skin should form at the last moment complete them with two or three ounces of butter per quart the garnish of poultry or game coolies consists of either small dice of game or fowl fillets which should be kept aside for the purpose a fine julienne of these fillets or small canal made from the latter raw the garnish of fish coulis is generally fish fillets poached in butter and cut up into small dice or in Julianne fashion 241 beast the invariable base of beast is shellfish cooked in mirepoix their thickening ingredients are or may be rice fish veloute or crusts of bread fried in butter the proportion being three ounces of rice ten ounces of bread crusts or 3/4 pint of fish of veloute per pound of shellfish cooked in mirepoix number to 28 when the soup is strained treated in precisely the same way as the coolies the garnish consists of small dice of the meat from the shellfish used these pieces should have been put aside from the first 240 to the veloute these differ from the puree coolies and bisque in that their invariable thickening element is of veloute whose preparation is in harmony with the nature of the ingredients of the soup these being either vegetables poultry game fish or shellfish the preparation of the veloute allow 3 and 1/2 ounces of white rule per quart of diluent this diluent should be ordinary consomme for a veloute of vegetables or herbs chicken consomme for a poultry veloute or very clear fish fumet for a fish or shellfish veloute the procedure is exactly the same as that described under number 26 of the leading sauces the apportionment of the ingredients in general the quantities of each constituent are in the following proportion veloute 1/2 the puree of the substance which characterizes the soup 1/4 the consomme used to bring the soup to its proper consistence 1/4 in respect of finishing ingredients used for thickening the yolks of three eggs and one-fifth pint of cream for quarters soup thus for 4 quarts of poultry veloute we arrive at the following quantities poultry veloute three points puree of fowl obtained from a clean and drawn hen weighing about three pounds one quart consomme for regulating consistence one quart Leeson 12 yolks and four-fifths pint of cream rules relative to the preparation if the veloute is to be a lettuce chicory celery or mixed herbs these ingredients are scalded for five minutes drained gently stewed in butter and added to the prepared veloute in which their cooking is completed if carrots turnips onions and so on are to be treated finely mince them stew them in butter without allowing them to acquire any color and add them to the veloute if fowl be the base cook it in the veloute this done withdraw it remove the meat finally pound the same and add it to the veloute which is then rubbed through Tammy in the case of fish the procedure is the same as for fowl for game roast or saute the selected piece bone it finally pound the meat and combine the water with the veloute which should then be rubbed through Tammy for shellfish cook these in a mirepoix finally pound them together with the letter add to the veloute and past the hole through Tammy the completing of veloute having passed the soup through Tammy bring it to its proper degree of consistency with the necessary quantity of consomme boil while stirring and placed in a BAM ie at the last moment finished the soup with the Lisa and two ounces of butter per quart of liquid garnish for veloute in the case of vegetables Shifa nod fine print on EA or Renoir's for fowl and game the Phyllis of one or the other poached and cut two small dice or in julienne the fashion and a canal made with the raw Phillips or either fowl or game oh hi al for fish small dice are fun julienne of fish fillet his poached in butter for shellfish small dice of cooked shellfish meat put aside for the purpose remarks in certain circumstances these garnishes are increased by means of three tablespoonfuls of poached rice per quart of the soup 243 the creams practically speaking the preparation of the creams is the same as that of the veloute but for the following exceptions one in all circumstances that is whatever be the nature of the soup veloute is substituted for clear mission now to the correct consistency of the soup has got my means of milk instead of consomme three creams do not require egg yolk reasons for they are not muttered but they are finished with one-fifth or 2/5 point of fresh cream upper court creams allow of the same garnishes as the veloute 244 special soups and thickened consomme these are of different kinds though their preparation remains the same and they do not one themselves to the requirements of veloute or creams i should quote as types of this class the ambassador la mary ken-doll a full bun and so on the same holds good with thickened consomme such as jhemini coca-cola and so on 245 vegetable soups these soups of which the pays on is the radical type do not demand very great precision in the apportionment of the vegetables of which they are composed but they need great care and attention notwithstanding the vegetables in the majority of cases must undergo a long stewing in butter and operation the object of which is to expel their vegetable moisture and to saturate them with butter in respect of others which have a local character the vegetables should be cooked with the dillamond without a preparatory stewing to 46 foreign soups in the course of Part two of this work I shall allude to certain soups which have a foreign origin and whose use although it may not be general is yet sufficiently common if only for the sake of novelty or variety it is occasionally permissible to poach upon the preserves of foreign nations but apart from this there exist among the recipes of foreigners many which can but enrich their adopter besides being generally appreciated end of section 13 reading by Milan section 14 of a guide to modern cookery part 1 this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by malone a guide to modern cookery part 1 by Auguste Escoffier translated by James P Herndon jr. chapter 10 part two leading culinary operations grazing poaching saute and pulling except for the roasts grills and frying which will be discussed later all q linear operations dealing with meat are related to one of the four following methods braising piling poaching and saute these four methods of cooking belong however to the sauces and this explains how it is that the latter hold such a preeminent position in French cookery before devoting any attention to particular formulae which will be given in the second part of this work it seemed desirable to me to recapitulate in a general way the theory of each of these cooking methods these theories are of paramount importance since it is only with the complete knowledge of them that good results may be obtained by the culinary operator 247 ordinary praisings of all the various kuelen Airy operations praisings are the most expensive and the most difficult long an assiduous practice alone can teach the many difficulties that this mode of procedure entails for it is one which demands extraordinary care and the most constant attention over and above the question of care and that of the quality of meat used which latter consideration is neither more nor less important here than in any other cooking operation there are also these conditions to be fulfilled in order that a good brazing may be obtained namely that excellent stock should be used in moistening and that the brazing base be well prepared now meats that are braised mutton and beef are braised in the ordinary way but veal lamb and poultry are braised in a manner which are so treat of later meat intended for braising need not as in the case of roasts be that of young beasts the best for the purpose is that derived from an animal of three to six years of age in the case of beef and one to two years in the case of mutton good meat is rarely procured from animals more advanced than these in years and even so should it be used it would not only be necessary to protract the time of cooking inordinate Lee but the resulting food would probably be far Burress and dry properly speaking meat derived from old or ill-nourished beasts only answers to purposes in cookery namely the preparation of consomme and that of various kinds of stock the lording of meats for braising when the meat to be braised is ribs or fillet of beef it is always interlaken and consequently never dry of decent quality but this is not the case with the meat of the rumps or the leg of mutton these meats are not sufficiently fat of themselves to allow a prolong cooking without there becoming dry for this reason they are lauded with square strips of bacon fat which should be as long as the meat under treatment and about half an inch thick these strips of fat our first season with pepper nutmeg and spices be sprinkled with chopped parsley and then marinated for two hours in a little brandy they should be inserted into the meat equidistantly by means of special larding needles the proportion of fat to the meat should be about three ounces per pound to marinade bracings larded or not the meats intended for braising again considerably from being marinated for a few hours in the wines which are to supply their moistening and the aromatics constituting the base of their liquor before doing this season them with salt pepper and spices rolling them over and over in these in order that they may absorb the seasoning thoroughly then place them in a receptacle just large enough to contain them between two litters of aromatics which will be detailed here after cover them with the wine which forms part of their braising liquor and which is generally a white or red of an ordinal in the proportion of 1/4 pint per pound of meat and leave them to marinade for about 6 hours taking care to turn them over three or four times during that period the aromatics or base of the braising these are thickly sliced and fried carrots and onions in the proportion of 1 ounce per pound of meat 1 fagot including 1 garlic clove and one on one half ounce of fresh blanched bacon rind to fry prepare and cook braised meat having sufficiently marinated the meat drain it on a sieve for half an hour and wipe it dry with a clean piece of linen heat some clarified fat of white consomme in a thick sauce pan of convenience size or braising pan and when it is sufficiently hot put the meat in the sauce pan and let it acquire color on all sides the object of this operation is to cause a contraction of the pores of the meat thereby surrounding the Lotter with a species of queer oz which prevents the inner juices from escaping too soon and converting the braising indo boiling process the frying should therefore be a short or lengthy process according as to whether the amount of meat to be braised be small or large having properly fried the meat withdraw it from the braising pan cover it with slices of larding bacon if it be lean and string it in the case of fillets and ribs of beef this treatment may be dispensed with as they are sufficiently well supplied with their own fat now pour the marinade prepared for the meat into the braising pan and place the meat on a litter composed the vegetables the marinade contained cover the pan and rapidly reduce the wine therein when this has assumed the consistency of syrup had sufficient Brown stock to cover the meat it being understood that the latter only just conveniently fills the pan cover the braising pan set to boil and then put it in a moderate oven let the meat cook until it may be deeply pricked with a braiding needle without any blood being drawn at this stage the first phase of braising were of the theory shall be given here after comes to an end and the meat is transferred to another clean utensil just large enough to hold it with respect to the cooking liquor either of the two following modes of procedure may now be adopted one if the liquor is required to be clear it need only be strained over the meat through muslin while the braising pan should be placed in the oven where the cooking may go on until completed interrupting it only from time to time in order to baste the meat this done thickened the liquor with arrowroot after the manner of an ordinary thicken gravy number 41 – if on the contrary a sauce be required the liquor should be reduced to half before being put back on the meat and it is restored to its former volume by means of 2/3 of its quantity of espagnole sauce and 1/3 of tomato puree or an equivalent quantity of fresh tomatoes the cooking of the meat is completed in this sauce and the basting should be carried on as before when it is cooked that is to say when the point of a knife may be easily thrust into it without meeting with any resistance whatsoever it should be carefully withdrawn from the sauce the latter should be against rain through muslin and then left to rest with a few – letting the grease settle on the surface carefully remove this grease and rectify the sauce with a little excellent stock if it is too thick or by reduction if it is too thin the glazing of braised meat various meat is glazed in order to make it more slightly but this operation is by no means essential and it is quite useless when the meat is cut up previous to being served to glaze me place it as soon as cooked in the front of the oven sprinkle it slightly with it's cooking liquor gravy or sauce and push it into the oven so that this liquor may dry being very gelatinous the latter adheres to the meat while it's superfluous water evaporates and thus coats the solid with a thin film of meat glaze this operation is renewed eight or ten times whereupon the meat is withdrawn from the oven placed on addition covered until it is served various remarks relative to brazing when a braised meat is to be accompanied by vegetables as in the case of beef al-ahmad these vegetables may either be cooked with the meat during the second braising phase after they have been duly colored in butter with a little salt and sugar or they may be cooked separately with a portion of the braising liquor the first procedure is the better but it lends itself less to a correct final dressing it is therefore the operators business to decide according to the circumstances which is the more suitable of the two I pointed out above that the cooking of braised meat consists of two phases and I shall now proceed to discuss each of these so that the reader may thoroughly understand their processes it has been seen that meat to be braced must in the first place be fried all over and this more particularly when it is very thick the object of this operation is to hold in the meats juices which would otherwise escape from the cut surfaces now this frying produces a kind of queer ass around the flesh which gradually thickens during the cooking process until it reaches the center under the influence of the heat of the surrounding liquor the meat Farber's contract and steadily drive the contained uses towards the center soon the heat reaches the center where after having affected the decomposition of the juices there in collected the latter released the superfluous water they contain this water quickly vaporizes and by so doing distends and separates the tissues surrounding it thus during this first phase a concentration of juices takes place in the center of the meat you will now be seen that they undergo an absolutely different process in the second as shown the disaggregation of the muscular tissue begins in the center of the meat as soon as the temperature which reaches there is sufficiently intense to vaporize the collected juices the tension of the vapour given off by the latter perforce increases by dint of funding no issue it therefore exerts considerable pressure upon the tissues though now its direction is the reverse of what it was in the first place that is from the center to the periphery gradually the tissues relaxed under the pressure and the effects of cooking and the work of disaggregation having gradually reached the fried surface the letter also relaxes in its turn and allows the constrained users to escape and to mix with the sauce at the same time however the latter begins to filter through the meat and this ad does in accordance with a well known physical law namely capillarity this stage of the braising demands the most attentive care the braising liquor is found to be considerably reduced and no longer covers the meat for the operation is nearing its end the bared meat would therefore dry very quickly if care were not taken to baste it constantly and to turn it over and over so that the whole of the muscular tissue is moistened and thoroughly saturated with the sauce by this means the meat acquires that mellowness which is typical of braising x' and distinguishes them from other preparations our should be loath to dismiss the subject before pointing out two practices in the cooking of bracings which are as common as they are absolutely wrong the first of these is the passage of the braising bass instead of laying the fried meat on a litter of aromatics likewise fried beforehand many operators place the meat which they often omit to fry on raw aromatics at the bottom of the braising pan the whole is sprinkled with a little melted fat and the aromatics are left to fry on one side only until they begin to burn on the bottom of the receptacle if this operation were properly conducted it might be tolerated even though aromatics which are only fried on one side cannot exude the same savour as those which are fried all over them but nine times out of ten the frying is to lengthier process from neglect or absent-mindedness the aromatics are left to burn on the bottom of the pan and the results of bitterness which pervades and spoils the whole sauce as a matter of fact this process of passage is an absurd caricature of a method of preparing bracings which was very common in old cookery the custom of which was not to prepare the braising liquor in advance but to cook it and its ingredients simultaneously with the meat to be braised this method though excellent was very expensive the meats forming the base of the braising liquor consisting of thick slices of raw ham or veal the observance of economy therefore long ago compelled cooks to abandon this procedure but routine has perpetuated the form of the latter without insisting upon the use of its constituents which were undoubtedly its essential part routine has even in certain cases aggravated the first error by instituting a habit consisting of substituting bones for the meats formerly employed and obviously ridiculous practice in the production of ordinary consomme number one we saw that bones even when taken from veal as is customary in the case of braising liquor require at the very least 10 to 12 hours of cooking before they can yield all their soluble properties as a proof of this it is interesting to note that if bones undergo only 5 or 6 hours of cooking and are moistened afresh and cooked for further six hours the liquor of the second cooking yields more meat glaze than that of the first though it must be admitted that while the latter is more gelatinous it has less savour but this gelatinous property of bones is no less useful to bruisings than as their saver Cynthia is the former that supplies the mellowness which nothing can replace and without which the sauce can have no quality since there for the longest time that a brazing can cook is from four to six hours it follows that if bones be added there in their properties will scarcely have begun disaggregating when the meat is cooked they will in fact have yielded but an infinitesimal portion of these properties where for their addition to the brazing is to say the least quite useless it now remains to be proved that the above method is bad from another point of view I suppose I need not fear contradiction when I assert that in order that a brazing may be good its sauce should be short and correspondingly substantial also that the sauce obtained from a piece of meat moisten with a quart of liquid cannot be so good as that resulting from the moistening of a pint only it is more particularly on this account that I advise a braising utensil which can only just hold the meat for since in the first stage the meat is only moistened with the braising liquor the smaller the receptacle may be the less liquor will it require and the latter will in consequence be the tastier hence if bones be added to the brazing the utensil must necessarily be larger and a greater quantity of braising liquor must be used but this liquor will not be nearly so savoury as that obtained from the process or a recommend in fact it will be but a rather strong broth quite unfit for the impregnation of the meat and the final result will be a tasteless lump of farber instead of a succulent braising I must apologize to the reader for my insistence with regard to these questions but their importance is such that success is beyond reach in the matter of Brown salsas and bracings unless the above details have been thoroughly grasped moreover the explanations given will afford considerable help in the understanding of operations which I shall give later therefore it is to be hoped that the examination of the theories involved however long this has been will prove of use and assistance 248 bracing of white meats the brazing of white meats as it is now affected in modern cookery is strictly speaking not braising at all in as much as the cooking has stopped at the close of the first of the two phases which I mentioned when discussing Brown bracings true old cookery did not understand brazing in the way that the modern school does and under the ancient regime large pieces especially of veal were frequently cooked until they could almost be scooped with a spoon this practice has been generally though mistakenly as skewed but its name serve ours while brazing czar made with the neck the saddle of the loin the Philips the free condo and the sweetbreads of veal young turkeys and fat poets and sometimes they less frequently relevé of lamb hindquarters or saddle the procedure is the same for all these meats the time of cooking alone varies in accordance with their size the aromatics are the same as those of the brown raisins but the frying of them is optional the moistening liqueur is brown veal stock number nine mode of procedure except for the veal sweetbreads which is always blanched before being braised the meats or poultry to be treated may always be slightly stiffened and browned in butter on all sides this is not essential in all cases but I think that when they do undergo something of the kind they dry less quickly now place them in a utensil just large enough to hold them and deep enough to keep the lid from touching them place the aromatics under them and moisten with a little veal stock set the boil on a moderate fire and reduce the veal stock with the lid on when this stock has assumed the consistence of a glaze at a further similar quantity of fresh stock and reduces before the third time moisten the veal until it is half covered and push the pin into a moderate oven the meat needs constant basting while it cooks in order to avoid its drawing and the stock is very gelatinous it forms a coating on the surface which resists the evaporation of the contained uses for these being insufficiently constrained by the slight of frying the meat has undergone tend to vaporize under the influence of the heat it is for this reason that the stock must be reduced to a glaze before finally moistening if the moistening were all done at once the liqueur would not be sufficiently dense to form the coating mentioned above and the meat would consequently dry on being set to cook braised white meat is known to be cooked when after having a deeply pricked it with a braiding needle it exudes an absolutely colorless liquid this liquid denotes that the piece is cooked to the center and as a result thereof the blood has decomposed there lies the great difference between brown bracings and white meat bracings the latter are practically roasts and they should not be made with any but young poultry or meats very fat and tender for they cannot go beyond their correct time of cooking which equals that of roasts without immediately losing all their quality a quarter of an hour too much in the cooking of a kernel of veal weighing about 6 pounds is enough to make the meat dry and unpalatable and to thoroughly spoil it whereas a brown braising cannot be overcooked provided it did not burn white braised meats are generally glazed and this process is especially recommended for lorded pieces which though less common nowadays that formerly can still claim many voters end of section 14 reading by Malone section 15 of a guide to modern cookery part 1 this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by malone a guide to modern cookery part 1 by Auguste Escoffier translated by James B hundun jr. chapter 10 part three leading keulen airy operations 249 poaching's however nonsensical it may sound the best possible definition of a poaching is a boiling that does not boil the term poach is extended to all slow processes of cooking which involved the use of a liquor however small thus the term poach applies to the cooking of coo-wee young of large pieces of turbot and Selman as well as to fillets of sole cooked with a little fish fumet to hot mousseline and moose cooked in moulds to canal which are cooked in salted water to eggs announced as poached to creams various Royale and so on it will readily be seen that among so many different products the time allowed for the cooking in each case must differ sometimes widely from the West the treatment of them all however is subject to this unalterable principle namely that the poaching the curve must not boil though it should reach a degree of heat as approximate as possible to boiling point another principle is that large pieces of fish or poultry be set to boil in cold liquor after which the latter is brought to the required temperature as rapidly as possible the case may be the same with filet of sole or poultry which are poached almost dry but all other preparations whose mode of cooking is poaching gained by being immersed in liquor which has reached the required temperature before hand having regard to the multitudinous forms and kinds of products that are poached it would be somewhat difficult to state here the details and peculiarities proper to each in the matter of poaching I think therefore I should do better to leave these details to the respective recipes of each product though it will now be necessary to disclose the way of poaching poultry if only with a view to thoroughly acquainting the reader with the theory propounded above properly prepare the piece of poultry to be poached and trusted with its feet folded back alongside of the breast if it is to be stuffed this should be done before trussing if it is to be lauded or studded either with truffles ham or tongue rub it when Trust on the filet and legs with half a lemon and dip the same portions of its body namely those to be lauded or studded for a few moments in boiling white stock the object of this operation is to slightly stiffen the skin thus facilitating the learning or studying the cooking of the piece of poultry having stuffed lorded or studded it if necessary and having in any case trust it place it in a receptacle and just large enough to hold it and moisten with some excellent white stock previously prepared set to boil skim put the lid on and continue the cooking at a low simmer it is useless to work too quickly as the operation would not be shortened a second by so doing the only results would be one too violent evaporation which would reduce the liqueur and disturb its limpid nose to the running of a considerable risk of bursting the piece of poultry especially when the latter is stuffed the fowl or whatever it may be is known to be cooked when after pricking the thick of the leg close to the drumstick the issuing liquid has white remarks a the need of poaching poultry in over sceptic adjust large enough to hold the piece is accounted for as follows one the piece must be wholly immersed in the stock during the cooking process two as the liqueur used is afterwards served as an accompanying sauce to the dish the less there is of it the more saturated does it become with the juices of the meat and consequently the better it is be one the white stock used in poaching should be prepared beforehand and be very clear too if the piece of poultry were set to cook with the products constituting the stock even if these were more than liberally apportioned the result would be bad for in as much as a fowl for example can only take 1 and 1/2 hours at the most to cook and the time required for extracting the nutritious and aromatic principles from the constituents of the stock would be at least 6 hours it follows that the fowl would be cooking in little more than hot water and the resulting sauce would be quite devoid of Saveur 250 po Wellings Wellings are practically speaking roasts for the cooking periods of each of the same except that the former are cooked entirely or almost entirely with butter they represent a simplified process of old cookery which consisted in enveloping the object to be treated after frying it in a thick coating of Matignon it was then wrapped with thin slices of pork fat covered with buttered paper placed in the oven or on a spit and basted with the melted butter while it cooked this done its grease was drained away and the vegetables of the matino were inserted in the brazing ban where in the piece had cooked or in a saucepan and were moistened with excellent Madeira or highly seasoned stock then when the liquor had thoroughly absorbed the aroma of the vegetables it was strained and its grease was removed just before dishing up this excellent method is worthy of continued use in the case of large pieces of poultry preparation of pulled meats place in the bottom of a deep and thick receptacle just large enough to hold the piece to be pulled a layer of raw material number 227 the meat or a piece of poultry is placed on the vegetables after it has been well seasoned and is copiously sprinkled with melted butter cover the utensil and push it into an oven whose heat is not too fierce set it to cook gently in this way after the manner of a stew and frequently sprinkle with melted butter when the meats are the pieces of poultry are cooked the utensil is uncovered so that the former may acquire a fine colour when they are transferred to a dish which should be kept covered until taken to the table now add to the vegetables which must not be burned a sufficient quantity of brown veal stock number 9 transparent and highly seasoned set the hole to boil gently for 10 minutes strain through a serviette carefully remove all grease from the falling stock and sent it to the table in a sauce boat at the same time as the meat or poultry which by the by is generally garnished remarks on Wellings it is of paramount importance that these be not moistened to do the process of cooking for in that case their savor would be the same as that of braised white meats nevertheless an exception may be made in the case of such feathered game as pheasants partridges and quails – which is added when nearly cooked a small quantity of burnt brandy it is also very important that the vegetables should not have their grease removed before their moistening stock is added to them the butter used in the cooking absorbs a large proportion of the savour of both the vegetables and the meat under treatment and to make good this loss it is essential that the moistening stock remain at least 10 minutes in contact with the butter at the end of this time it may be removed without in the least impairing the aroma of the stock special boiling known as alcohol or angka coat the preparations of butchers mates of poultry or game known as um casserole or unka quart are actually pullings cooked in special earthenware utensils and served in the same generally preparations known as all casserole are simply cooked in butter without the addition of vegetables when the cooking is done the piece under treatment is withdrawn for a moment and some excellent brown veal stock number nine is poured into the utensil this is left to simmer for a few minutes the superfluous butter is then removed the pieces returned to the earth and where utensil and it is kept hot without being allowed to boil until it is dished up for preparations termed on Cocotte the procedure is the same except that the piece is garnished with such vegetables as mushrooms the bottoms of artichokes small onions carrots turnips and so on which are either turned or regularly paired and half cooked in butter before being used one should endeavor to use only fresh vegetables and these should be added to the piece constituting the dish in such was as to complete their cooking with it the earthenware utensils used for this purpose improve with use provided they be cleaned with clean fresh water without any soda or soap if new utensils have to be used these should be filled with water which is set to boil and they should then undergo at least 12 hours soaking for the prescribed time this water should be kept in gently boiling and then the utensil should be well wiped and soaked anew in fresh water before being used 2:51 the sotae but characterizes the process we call saute is that the object treated is cooked dry that is to say solely by means of a fatty substance such as butter oil or grease saute are made with cut-up fowl or game or with butchers meat suitably divided up for the purpose all products treated in this way must be frizzled that is to say they must be put into the fat when it is very hot in order that a hardened coating may form around them which will keep their juices within this is more particularly desirable for red meats such as beef and mutton the cooking of fowl saute must after the mates have been frizzled be completed on the stove or with lid off in the oven where they should be basted with butter after the manner of a most the pieces are worth drawn from the utensil with a view to swilling the latter after which if they be put back into the sauce or accompany and garnish they should only remain there in a few moments or just sufficiently long to become properly warm the procedure is the same for game saute so tazed butchers meats red meats such as tornado kernels cutlets fillets and Lizette are always affected on the stove the meats are frizzled and cooked with a small quantity of clarified butter the thinner and smaller they are the more rapidly should the frizzling process be effected when blood appears on the surface of their raw side they should be turned over when drops of blood begin to badou the other side they are known to be cooked the swelling of the utensil obtains in also tight after having withdrawn the treated product from the saucepan removed the grease and pour the condiment or a liquid a wine that forms part of the accompanying sauce into the saucepan set to boil so that the solidified gravy lying on the bottom may dissolve and add the sauce or simply add the swelling liquid to the prepared sauce or accompanying garnish of the saute the utensil used must always be just large enough to hold the objects to be treated if it is too large the parts left uncovered by the treated meats burn and swelling is then impossible once their results of loss of the solidified gravy which is an important constituent in the sauce so tase of white butchers mates such as veal and lamb must also be frizzled in hot fat but their cooking must be completed gently on the other side of the fire and in many cases with lid on preparations of a mixed nature which partly resembles saute and partly bracings are also called saute stews however is their most suitable name these dishes are made from beef veal lamb game and so on and they are to be found in part two under the headings Estefan gula sautee Susa Marengo bourgeoise never CV and so on in the first stage of their preparation these meats are cut up small and fried like those of the saute in the second slow cooking with sauce or garnish makes them akin to the braised mates end of section 15 reading by Milano such sixteen of a guide to modern cookery part one this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by milano a guide to modern cookery part 1 by Auguste Escoffier translated by James B Herndon jr. chapter 10 part for leading culinary operations three roasts grills fry Aang's roasts of the two usual methods of roasting the spit will always be used in preference to the oven if only on account of the conditions under which the operation is effected and whatever be the kind of fuel used wood coal or gas the reason of this preference is clear if it be remembered that in spite of every possible precaution during the progress of an oven roast it is impossible to avoid an accumulation of vapor around the cooking object in a closed oven and this steam is more particularly objectionable in as much as it is excessive in the case of delicately flavored meats which latter are almost if not entirely impaired there by the spitted roast on the contrary cooks in the oven in a dry atmosphere and by this means retains its own peculiar flavor hence the unquestionable superiority of spitted roasts over the oven cond especially in respect of small feathered game in certain circumstances and places there is no choice of means and no lanes Wolens the oven has to be used but in this case at least all possible precautions should be observed in order to counteract the effects of the steam above-mentioned 250 to larding bacon for roasts poultry and game to be roasted or generally to be partly covered with a large thin slice of mourning bacon especially those pieces of game which in special cases are larded the object in use of these slices are not only to shield the fillet of fowl on game from the severe heat of the fire but also to prevent these from drying while the legs which the heat takes much longer to penetrate than the other parts are cooking the slices of bacon should therefore completely cover the breasts of fowl and game and they should be tied on to the latter by means of string in some cases roasts of butchers mate are covered with layers of veal or beef that the object of which is similar to that of the bacon prescribed above 253 spitted roasts the whole theory of roasts on the spit might be condensed as follows in the case of butchers mate calculate the intensity of the heat used according to the piece to be roasted the latter size and quality and the time it has hung experience however is the best guide for any theory whatever be its exactness can only give the leading principles and general rules and cannot pretend to supply the place the practice tie and the accuracy which are the result of perience alone nevertheless I do not say with Bria silver ha that a roaster is born and not made I merely state that one may become a good roaster with application observation care and a little aptitude the three following rules will be found to cover all the necessary directions for spit and roasts one all red meats containing a large quantity of juice should be properly set and then according to their size may do undergo the action of a fire capable of radiating a very penetrating heat with little or no flame to in the case of white meats whose cooking should be thorough the fire ought to be so regulated as to allow the roast to cook and color simultaneously 3 with small-game the fuel should be wood but whatever fuel be used the fire ought to be made up in such wise as to produce more flame than glowing embers 254 oven roasts the degree of heat used for each roast must be regulated according to the nature and size of the latter after the manner of spittin roasts an oven roast in the first place should always be placed on a meat stand and this should be of such a height that at no given moment during the cooking process the meat may come into contact with the juices and fat which have drained from it into the utensil beneath failing a proper stand a spit resting upon the edges of the utensil may be used no liquid of any kind gravy or water need be put in the baking pan the addition of any liquid is rather prejudicial than otherwise since by producing vapor which hangs over the roast it transforms the latter into a stool remarks whether spitted or in the oven a roast must always be frequently basted with a fatty substance but never with any other liquid 255 the gravy of roasts the real and most natural gravy for roasts is made from the swilling of the baking or dripping pan even if water we used as the Dilla went since the contents of these utensils represent a portion of the essential principles of the roast followed from it in the process of cooking but to obtain this result neither the utensils nor the gravy ought to have burned the latter should merely have solidified and for this reason a roast cooked in a very fierce oven ought to be laid on a pan only just large enough to hold it so that the fat may not burn the swilling can in any case only produce a very small quantity of gravy consequently when it happens that a greater quality is required the need is met beforehand by preparing a stock made from bones and trimmings of a similar nature to the roast for which the gravy is required the procedure for this is as follows place the bones and trimmings in a pan with a little fat and literally roast them then transfer them to a saucepan moistened so as to cover with a tepid slightly salted water and add thereto of the swelling's of the pan wherein they were roasted boil skim and set to cook gently for three or four hours according to the nature of the products used this done almost entirely removed the grease strain through muslin and put aside for the purpose of swelling the dripping or baking pan of the roast swilling having removed the roast from the spit or oven take off a portion of the grease from the baking or dripping pan and pour into it that required quantity of a prepared gravy reduced the hole by half strain through muslin and almost entirely remove grease it is a mistake to remove all the grease from and clarify the gravy of roasts treated thus they are certainly clearer and more slightly but a large proportion of their savour is lost and it should be borne in mind that the gravy of a roast is not a consomme in the matter of roast feathered game the accompanying gravy is supplied by the swelling of the utensil either with water or small quantity of brandy this is a certain means of obtaining the gravy whose savor is precisely that of the game but occasionally via gravy is used as its flavour is neutral and it therefore cannot impair the particular flavor of the reduced game gravy lying on the bottom of the utensil the use of stock prepared from the bones and trimmings of game similar to that constituting the dish is also common 2:56 the dressing and accompaniments of roasts as a rule a roast ought not to wait it out only to leave the spit or oven in order to be served all roasts should be placed on very hot dishes slightly besprinkled with fresh butter and surrounded by bunches of watercress this is optional the gravy is invariably served separately we of butchers meat and poultry are dished up as simply as possible small roasted game may be dished up on fried slices of bread crumb mashed with a grata stuffing number 202 when lemons our company arose they should be served separately pieces of lemon that have once served to garnish a dish must not be used for they have mostly been tainted by grace the medieval custom of dishing game with the plumage has been abandoned roast feathered game along was is dished up with or without potato chips and the three adjuncts are gravy breadcrumbs and bread sauce in northern countries game roasts are always accompanied either more slightly sugared stewed apples or by cherry or apricot jam 257 grills those culinary preparations affected by means of grilling belong to the order called cooking by concentration and indeed in almost all cases the great object of these operations I might even say the greatest object is the concentration in the center of the juices and essences which represent most essentially the nutritive principles of the products cooked a grill which is in short but a roast on an open fire stands in my opinion as the remote starting point the very genesis of our art it was the primeval notion of our forefathers infantile brains it was progress born of an instinctive desire to eat with greater pleasure and it was the first culinary method ever employed a little later and following naturally as it were a on this first attempt the spit was born of the grill gradually intelligence supplanted rude instinct reason began to deduce effects from supposed causes and thus cooking was launched forth upon that high road along which it has not yet ceased steadily to advance fuel for grills that mostly used and certainly the best for the purpose is live coal or small pieces of charcoal whatever fuel be used however it is essential that it produce no smoke even though the grill fire be ventilated by powerful blowers which draw the smoke off more especially is this necessary though I admit the contingency is rare when artificial ventilation has to be affected owing to the forest burning in the open without the usual help of systematic drafts for if smoke occasioned by foreign substances or by the falling of the fat itself onto the glowing embers were not immediately carried away either artificially or by a convenient draught the grills would most surely acquire a very disagreeable taste there from the bed of charcoal the arrangement of the bed of charcoal under the grill is of some importance and it must not only be regulated according to the size and kind of the products to be grilled but also in such wise as to allow of the production of more or less heat under given circumstances the bed should therefore be set in equal layers in the center but varying in thickness according as to whether the fire has to be more or less fierce it should also be slightly raised on those sides which are in contact with the air in order that the whole burning surface may radiate equal degrees of heat the grill must always be placed over the glowing fuel in advance and it should be very hot when the objects to be grilled are placed upon it otherwise they would stick to the bars and would probably be spoiled when turned grills classified grills may be divided into four classes of which each demands particular care they are one red meat grills beef and mutton – white meat grills veal lamb of poultry 3 fish 4 grills coated with butter and breadcrumb Nasim 258 red meat grills I submit as a principle that the golden rule and grills is to strictly observe the Kirk degree of heat which is proper to each treatment object never forgetting that the larger and richer in nutrition the piece of meat the quicker and more thorough must be its initial setting I have already explained under brazing x' the part played by and the use of whistling or setting but it is necessary to revert to this question and its bearing upon grills if large pieces of meat beef or mutton are in question the better their quality and the richer they are in juices the more resisting must be the RIS old coating they receive the pressure of the contained juices upon the result coating of this meat will be proportionately great or small according to whether the latter be rich or poor and this pressure will gradually increase with the waxen he if the grill fire be so regulated as to ensure the per se of penetration of heat into the cooking object this is what happens the heat striking that surface of the meat which is in direct communication with the fire penetrates the tissues and spreads stratiform Li through the body driving the letters juices in front of it when these reach the opposite result or set side of the meat they are checked and there upon absorbing the incoming heat affect the cooking of the inner parts of course if the piece of meat under treatment is very thick the first nough sin the fire should be proportionately abated the moment the initial process of whistling or setting of the meat surface has been affected the object being to allow the heat to penetrate the cooking body more regularly if the fierceness of the fire were maintained the RIS old coating on the meat would probably char and the resulting thickness of carbon would so successfully resist the passage of any heat into the interior that in the end while the meat would probably be found to be completely burnt on the outside the inside would be quite raw if somewhat thinner pieces are in question a quick whistling of their surfaces over a fierce fire and a few minutes our subsequent cooking will be all they need no alteration and the intensity of the fire need be sought in this case examples a rump steak or shuttlebay Hall in order to be properly cooked should first have its outsides result on a very fierce fire with a view to preserving its juices after which cooking may proceed over a moderate fire so as to allow the gradual penetration of the heat into the center of the body small pieces such as tornadoes small Phillips was it chops may after the preliminary process of outside whistling be cooked over the same degree of heat as effected the latter because the thickness of meat to be penetrated is less the carom grills while cooking before placing the meats on the grill baste them slightly with clarified butter and repeat this operation frequently during the cooking process so as to avoid the possible drawing of the result surfaces grilled red meat should always be turned by means of special tongs and great care should be observed that its surface be not torn or pierced lest the object of the preliminary precautions be defeated and the contained juices escape time of cooking this in the case of red mates is arrived at by the following test if on touching the meat with one's finger the former resists any pressure it is sufficiently cooked if it give it is clear that in the center at least that reverses the case the most certain sign however that cooking has been completed is the appearance of little beads of blood upon the whistle surface of the meat 259 white meat grills that superficial whistling which is so necessary in the case of red meats is not it also in the case of white for in the latter there can be no question of the concentration of juices since these are only present in the form of albumin that is to say in the form of juicers in the making so to speak which is peculiar to veal and lamb for this kind of grills keep a moderate fire so let the cooking and coloring of the meat may take place simultaneously white meat grills it should be fairly often basted by means of a brush with clarified butter while cooking less there outside is dry they are known to be cooked when the juice issuing from them is quite white 260 fished grills use a moderate fire with these and only grill after having copiously sprinkle them with clarified butter or oil sprinkle them similarly while cooking a grilled fish is cooked when the bones are easily separated from the meat except for the fatty kind such as mackerel red mullet or herrings always roll fish to be grilled in flower before sprinkling them with melted butter the object is so doing is to give them a golden external crust which besides making them more sightly keeps them from drying 261 the grilling of products coated with butter and breadcrumbs these grills generally consist of only small objects they must be affected on a very moderate fire with the view of enabling them to cook and acquire color simultaneously they should also be frequently besprinkled with clarified butter and turned with care so as not to break their coating the object of which is to with whole that are contained juices end of section 16 reading by Malone section 17 of a guide to modern cookery part 1 this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by K hand a guide to modern cookery part 1 by Auguste Escoffier translated by James B Herndon jr. chapter 10 part 5 leading culinary operations 262 frying x' frying is one of the principle cooking processes for the number of preparations that are accomplished by its means is very considerable its procedure is governed by stringent laws and rules which it is best not to break less the double danger of failure and impairment of material be incurred the former is easily averted if one is familiar with a process and pays proper attention to it while the latter is obviated by precautions which have every raison d'être and the neglect of which only leads to trouble the question of the kind of utensil to employ is not so immaterial as some would think for very often accidents result from the mere disregard of the importance of this matter very often imprudence and bluster on the part of the operator may be the cause of imperfections the greatest care being needed in the handling of utensils containing overheated fat utensils used in frying should be made of copper or other resisting material they should be in one piece oval or round in shape and sufficiently large and deep to allow while only half filled with fat of the objects being properly affected by the latter the necessity of this condition is obvious seeing that if the utensil contains too much fat the slightest jerking of it on the stove would spill some of the liquid and the operator would probably be badly burnt finally utensils with vertical sides are preferable to those with the slanting kind more especially is this so in large kitchens where the work involving much frying capacious receptacles are wired 263 frying fat it's preparation any animal or vegetable grease is suitable for frying provided it be quite pure and possess a resisting force allowing it to reach a very high temperature without burning but for frying on a large scale the use of cooked and clarified fats such as the fat of PO tofu and roasts should be avoided a frying medium is only perfect when it is able to meet the demands of a protracted operation and consists of fresh or raw fats chosen with care and thoroughly purified by cooking under no circumstance may butter be used for frying on a large scale seeing that even when thoroughly purified it can only reach a comparatively low degree of heat it may be used only for small occasional frying the fat of kidney of beef generally forms the base of the grease intended for frying on a large scale it is preferable to all others on account of its cheapness and the great length of time it can be worked provided it receives the proper care veal fat yields a finer frying medium but its resistance is small and it must moreover always be strengthened with the fat of beef mutton fat should be deliberately discarded for if it happened to be that of an old beast it smells of tallow and if it be that of a young one it causes the hot grease to foam and to overflow down the sides of the utensil this leading to serious accidents pork fat is also used for frying either alone or combined with some other kind in brief the fat of kidney of beef is that which is best suited to frying zhan a large-scale ordinary household frying which does not demand a very resisting grease may well be affected by means of the above combined with an equal quantity of veal fat or a mixture composed of the fat of kidney of beef veal and pork in the proportions of 1/2 1/4 and 1/4 respectively the grease used for frying ought not only to be melted down but also thoroughly cooked that it may be quite pure if insufficiently cook it foams on first being used and so demand all kinds of extra precautions which only cease to be necessary when constant heating at last rectifies it moreover if it be not quite pure it easily penetrates immersed solids and makes them indigestible all grease used in frying should first be cut into pieces and then put in the saucepan with one pint of water per every ten pounds the object of the water is to assist in the melting and this it does by filtering into the grease vaporizing and thereby causing the latter to swell so long as the water has not completely evaporated the grease only undergoes the action of liquefaction ie the dissolution of its molecules but it's thorough cooking process any with its purification only begins when all the water is gone the grease is cooked when one the membranes which enveloped it alone remain intact and are converted into Greaves two it gives off smoke which has a distinct smell at this stage it has reached such a high temperature that it is best to remove it from the fire for about ten minutes so that it may cool then it must be strained through a sieve or a coarse towel which must be tightly twisted 264 the varying degrees of heat reached by the frying medium and their application the temperature reached by a frying medium depends upon the latter's constituents and its purity the various degrees may be classified as moderately hot hot very hot the expression boiling hot is unsuitable seeing that fat never boils butter an occasional frying medium cannot overreach 248 degrees Fahrenheit without burning whereas if it be thoroughly purified it can attain from 269 degrees to 275 degrees Fahrenheit a temperature which is clearly below what would be needed for work on a large scale animal grease is used an ordinary frying reach from 275 degrees to 284 degrees Fahrenheit moderately hot 320 degrees Fahrenheit when hot and 356 degrees Fahrenheit when very hot in the last case they smoked slightly pork fat lard when used alone reaches 392 degrees Fahrenheit without burning very pure goose dripping with stands 428 degrees Fahrenheit and finally vegetable fats may reach without burning 482 degrees Fahrenheit in the case of cocoa nut butter 518 degrees Fahrenheit with ordinary oils and 554 degrees in the case of olive oil the temperature of ordinary frying fat may be tested thus it is moderately hot when after throwing a sprig of parsley or a crust of bread into it it begins to bubble immediately it is hot if it crackles when a slightly moist object is thrust into it it is very hot when it gives off a thin white smoke perceptible to the smell the first temperature moderately hot is used one for all products containing vegetable water the complete evaporation of which is necessary to for fish whose volume exacts a cooking process by means of penetration previous to that with concentration in the first degree of heat with which it is used the frying fat therefore only affects a kind of preparatory operation the second temperature hots is used for all products which have previously undergone an initial cooking process in the first temperature either for evaporation or penetration and its object is either to finish them or to cover them with a crimped coating it is also applicable to these products upon which the frying fat must act immediately by concentration that is to say by forming a set coating around them which prevents the escape of the contained substances objects treated with this temperature are all those panier Longueuil a or covered with batter such as various croquettes chromakey cutlets and crawl ups a la Via Roy fritters of all kinds fried creams cetera in this case the frying medium acts by setting which in certain cases is exceedingly necessary one if the objects in question are pond a alum glai ie dipped into beaten eggs and rolled in bread crumbs the sudden contact of the hot grease converts this coating of egg and breadcrumbs into a resisting crust which prevents the escape of the substances and the liquefied sauce contained within if these objects were plunged in a fat that was not sufficiently hot the coating of eggs and breadcrumbs would not only imbibed the frying medium but it would run the risk of breaking thereby allowing the escape of the very substances it was intended to withhold – the same holds with objects treated with batter hence the absolute necessity of ensuring that setting which means that the covering of batter solidifies immediately as the substance constituting these various dishes are cooked in advance it follows at their second heating and the coloring of the coating egg and breadcrumbs or batter take place at the same time and in a few minutes the third temperature very hot is used one for all objects that need a sharp and firm setting – for all small objects the setting of which is of supreme importance and whose cooking is affected in a few minutes as in the case of whitebait 265 frying medium for fish every frying medium used for work at a large scale which has acquired a to decided colouring through repeated use may serve in the preparation of fish even until its whole strength is exhausted oil is best suited to the frying of fish especially the very small kind Oh into the tremendous heat it can withstand without burning for this heat guarantees that setting which is so indispensable except in this case however the temperature of the frying medium should be regulated strictly in accordance with the size of the fish to be fried in order that it's cooking and coloring may be affected simultaneous except no nonce and white bait which are simply rolled in flour fish to be fried are previously steeped in a slightly salted milk that rolled in flour from this combination of milk and flour the result a crispy coating which withholds the particular principles that the fish exudes while cooking when finished fried fish are drained dried slightly salted and dished on a serviette or on paper with a garnish of fried parsley sprays and the sections of channeled lemon 266 the quantity of the frying medium this should always be in proportion to the quantity or size of the objects to be fried bearing in mind that these must always be entirely submerged without necessarily exaggerating the quantity should invariably be rather in excess of the requirements and for this reason v's the greater amount of the fat the higher will be the temperature reached and the less need one fear of sudden cooling of the fat when the objects to be treated are immersed this sudden cooling is often the cause of great trouble unless one be working over a fire of such fierceness that the fat can be returned in a few seconds to the temperature it was at before the objects were immersed 267 the care of the frying medium every time a frying fat is used it should after having been melted be strained through a towel for the majority of objects which it has served to cook must have left some particles behind them which might prove prejudicial to the objects that are too followed objects that are panier always leave some rasping x' for instance which in time assumed the form of black powder while those that have been treated with flour likewise dropped some of their coating which in accumulating produces a muddy precipitate on the bottom of the utensil not only do these foreign substances disturb the clearness of the fat and render it liable to burn but they are exceedingly detrimental to the objects that are treated later therefore always strain the fat whenever it is used in the first place because the proper treatment of the objects demands it and secondly because it's very existence as a serviceable medium depends upon this measure 268 grotton's this keulen Airy operation plays a sufficiently important part in the work to war at my detailing at least it's leading points the various kinds of the order grotton's are the one complete gratin to the rapid gratin 3 the light gratin for glazing which is a form of rapid gratin 269 complete gratin this is the first example of the series it is that whose preparation is the longest and most tiresome for its principal constituent whatever this is must be completely cooked its cooking must moreover be coincident with the reduction of the sauce which is the base of the gratin and with the formation of the gratin proper ie the crimped crust which forms on the surface and is the result of the combination of the sauce with the wrappings and the butter under the direct influence of the heat in the preparation of complete gratin two things must be taken into account 1 the nature and size of the object to be treated and to the degree of heat which must be used in order that the cooking of the object the reduction of the sauce and the formation of the gratin may be effected simultaneously the base of complete gratin is most invariably ordinary or Latin Dukes ale sauce number 223 in accordance with the requirements the object to be treated with the gratin is laid on a buttered dish surrounded with slices of raw mushrooms and chopped shallots and covered with the Duke's L sauce the surface is then sprinkled with rasping sand copiously moistened with melted butter should the piece be large the amount of sauce used will be proportionally greater and the reverse of course applies to medium or smaller sizes take note of the following remarks in the making of complete grotton's 1 if too much sauce were used in proportion to the size of the object the latter would cook in the gratin form before the sauce could reach the correct degree of consistency I means of reduction hence it would be necessary to reduce the sauce still further on a stove and thereby give rise to steam which would soften the coding of the gratin 2 if the sauce used were insufficient it would be reduced before the cooking of the had been affected and more sauce having to be added the resulting gratin would be uneven three the larger the piece and consequently the longer it takes to cook the more moderate should be the heat used conversely the smaller it is the fiercer the fire should be when withdrawing the gratin from the oven squeeze a few drops of lemon juice over it and be sprinkle it with chopped parsley 270 rapid gratin procedures above with Duke SEL sauce but the products treated with it visa meat fish or vegetable are always cooked and warmed in advance all that is required therefore is to affect the formation of the gratin as quickly as possible to do this cover the object under treatment with the necessary quantity of salt be sprinkled with rasping sand butter and set the gratin to form in a fierce oven 271 light gratin this is proper to farinaceous products such as macaroni lasagnas noodles nokey etc and consists of a combination of grated cheese rasping and butter in this case again the only end in view is the formation of the gratin coating which must be evenly colored and is the result of the cheese melting a moderate heat is all that is wanted for this kind of gratin also considered as light grotton's are those which serve as a complement of soft vegetables such as tomatoes mushrooms eggplant and cucumber with these the gratin is composed of rasping sprinkled with butter or oil and it is placed in more or less fierce heat according to whether the vegetables have already been cooked or partially cooked or are quite raw 273 glazings these are of two kinds they either consist of a heavily buttered sauce where they form from the sprinkling of cheese upon the sauce with which the object to be glazed is covered in the first case after having poured sauce over the object to be treated place the dish on another dish containing a little water this is to prevent the sauce decomposing and boiling the greater the quantity of butter used the more intense will be the heat required in order that a slight golden film a form almost instantaneously in the second case the sauce used is always a mornay number 91 covered the object under treatment with the sauce B sprinkle with grated cheese and melted butter and place in fairly intense heat so that a slight golden crust may form almost immediately this crust being the results of the combined cheese and butter 273 blanching x' the essentially unsuitable term blanching x' is applied in the culinary technology of France to three classes of operations which entirely differ one from the other in the end they have in view one the blanching of meats two the blanching or better the parboiling of certain vegetables three the blanching of certain other vegetables which in reality amounts to a process of cooking the blanching of meats obtained mostly in the case of calves head and foot and the sweetbreads of veal sheeps and lambs trotters and lambs sweetbreads these means our first set to soak in cold running water until they have quite got rid of the blood with which they are naturally saturated they are then placed on the fire in a saucepan containing enough cold water to abundantly cover them and the water is gradually brought to a boil for calf's head or feet boiling may last for 15 or 20 minutes veal sweetbreads must not boil for more than 10 or 12 minutes while lamb sweetbreads is withdrawn the moment boil is reached as soon as blanched the meats are cooled and plenty of fresh water before undergoing their final treatment the blanching of cockscombs is exceptional in this namely that after the combs have been cleansed of blood that is to say soaked in cold water they are placed on the fire in cold water the temperature of which must be carefully kept below 113 degrees Fahrenheit when this degree is approached take the saucepan off the fire and rub each comb with a cloth dusted with table salt in order to remove the skins then cool the combs with fresh water before cooking them many people use the blanching process with means intended for blankets or fricassee I regard this procedure quite erroneous all as also the preliminary soaking in cold water if the meats or pieces of poultry intended for the above-mentioned preparations be of good quality and no others should be used they need only be set to cook in cold water or cold stock and gradually brought to the boil being stirred repeatedly the while the scum formed should be carefully removed and in this way perfectly white meats and stock with all their savour are obtained as two meats or pieces of poultry of an inferior quality no soaking and no blanching can make good their defects whichever way they are treated they remain dry gray and savour 'less is therefore simpler and better to use only the finest quality goods an excellent proof of the futility of soaking and blanching meats intended for freaka seas and blankets lies in the fact that these very meats if of good quality are always perfectly white when they are braised played or roasted notwithstanding the fact that these three operations are less calculated to preserve their whiteness than the kind of treatment they are subjected to in the case of blankets and freaka sees mere routine alone can account for this practice of soaking and blanching meats a practice that is absolutely condemned by common sense the term blanching is wrongly applied to cooking of green vegetables such as french beans green beans Brussels sprouts spinach and etc the cooking of these which is effected by means of boiling salt water thought really to be termed alum glai all the details of the procedure however will be given when I deal with the vegetables to which the latter apply lastly under the name of blanching there exists another operation which consists in partly cooking certain vegetables and plenty of water in order to rid them of any bitter or pungent flavor they may possess the time allowed for this blanching varies according to the age of the vegetables but when the latter are young and in season it amounts to little more than a mere scalding blanching is chiefly resorted to for lettuce chicory and dives celery artichokes cabbages and the green vegetables carrots turnips and small onions when they are out of season in respect of vegetable marrows cue numbers and ciaochao blanching is often left to the definite cooking process which should then come under the head of the alum glai cooking after the process of blanching the vegetables I have just enumerated are always cooled that is to say steeped in cold water until they are barely lukewarm they are then left to drain on a sieve previous to undergoing the final cooking process to which they are best suited this generally being brazing end of section 17